SECURITY CHALLENGES AND NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA`S FOURTH REPUBLIC
The insecurity challenge in Nigeria has assumed a formidable dimension that not only requires a multistakeholder approach, as it is being touted in various quarters, in quelling this conflagration threatening Nigeria’s statehood, but also necessitates a revival and reinforcement of moral values and virtues. The thirst for blood and the preference for violence in expressing pent-up frustration and disenchantment with the state, its citizens and national totems may be a pointer to the need to revive moral values and virtues within the socioeconomic, political, religious and educational institutions in the country. Nigerian leaders, politicians and their amen corners must be forced to evince and uphold national integration through moral values and virtues in all their conduct in order to lead by example and to avoid heating up the polity unnecessarily by their conducts and comments which sometimes incite violence in their followers.
1.1 Background of the Study
The issues of security of lives and property has attracted global attention in the 21st century hardly would a month pass without hearing cases of security threats in term of terrorism, insurgency or civil strife. Lately, Nigeria has been enmeshed in a fire box of insecurity leading to score of deaths of innocent civilians, foreigners. Some members of the nations security personnel, elected official and many government workers. The number of violent crime such as kidnappings, ritual killings, political-motivated killing and violence, either clashes, armed banditry and other has increasingly become the regular signature that characterizes life in Nigeria. Since 2009 [Imhonopi and Urim, 2012]. Government has tried everything from “force for force” to carrot and stick approach to diplomacy but the problem seems to rise with greater non strosity like the proverbial phoenix. There has also been strong advocacy for a multi stake holder intervention to the insecurity question rather than learn on military options alone [Imhonopi & Urim, 2013; open society, 2012, Uyomu, 2001], but the problem has defined the present medication. It is getting. This may not be unconnected with increasing ethnic hate, religious bigotry, political rivalry and a growing population of disgruntled citizens in the country who feel that they have been short changed and given very limited or no access to the common patrimony.
Egwu  had made this observation when he argued that the primordial tendencies of various ethnic groups towards violence, the perennial eruption of various ethnic militias and the dominant religious establishment in Nigeria, have inevitably aggravated the scale and propensity of insecurity and widened the scope in various ramifications. Not only has the continued state of insecurity threatened the very fabric of national integration in the country and created the ecology of fear, disquiet and anxiety, it has also meted a deadly blow or what Imhonomi & Urim (2012) call “spectral bite” to industrial development. The destruction to the badly needed infrastructure has taken the country many years back wards. The government has continued to trudge on in the face of this during challenge and has continued to evolue strategies to contain or douse this conflagration mean while social researchers, scholars security experts and consultants have also not rested in making diverse recommendation and probable solution to address this national blight. In this paper, focus is to examine security challenges and national integration in Nigeria forth republic.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The insecurity challenge in Nigeria has assumed a worrisome dimension that not only requires a multi stake holder approach, as it is being touted in various quarters in quelling this conflagration threatening Nigeria`s state hood, but also necessitates a revival and reinforcement of moral values and virtues. The thirst for blood and the preference for violence in expressing prent-up frustration and disenchantment with the state, it citizens and national totems may be a pointer to the need to revive moral value and virtues within the socio-economic, political religious and education institution in the country. Nigeria leaders, politicians and their a man corners must be forced to evince and uphold moral values and virtues in all their conduct on order to lead by example and to avoid heating up the policy unnecessarily by their conduct and comments which sometimes incite violence in their followers.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The objective of the study is summarized as follows.
1.4 Significance of the study
The importance of this work is to allow us to know the activities of people towards national integration. The study is significant because it would fix integration I the nature of readers. And will also teach the students the effects of the present security state ands national integration in Nigeria. It will be of benefit to the government parastatals in orders to correct impediments in various sectors [social, political, cultural etc] so as to ensure good leadership as well as rapid development.
This study will be of benefit to the society at large, citizens or followers to contribute their quota towards national development and good leadership. It will enable us to know the root of the problem as a leader who have the interest and adopt to understand the imperative and to discipline concept of where we want to go as a people and their sense of mission to stay on the path and achieve greatness.
The methodology adopted in this study is a blend of historical, descriptive and analytical research methods. The historical research will allow us to describe the antecedent and precedent from the past and present and learn from them which can be purely factual and descriptive. This means invariably the source of the data will be mainly library research and content analysis. This library will involve the use of relevant textbook on security challenges and national integration in Nigeria and other relevant books on the study.
1.6 Research question
1.7 Scope of the study
The project is being carried out purposely to examine the security challenges and national integration in Nigeria. The study shall cover the insecurity problem and its effects on national integration in Nigeria and it will mostly base on the fourth republic experience.
1.8 Definition of terms
National integration: This refers to efforts to bring people or people together for the purpose of achieving common objective. Amustut 2 (1990, 180) sees it as the name given to the group of processes involved in the growth and development of the nation.
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