SOCIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ATIBA LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN 1996 TO 2014.
Thisproject work is set to examine the socio-economic in Atiba local government in 1996-2014. It shed light on historical of Atiba local government and its importance in the Yoruba history. The town wheel of progress in the town has not achieve the desired goals due to the neglect of the agent of transformation in the sight of government (Federal and State) it recommended that collaborative efforts is needed to transform the town to endurable position among the committee of town in Oyo state and Nigeria at large. Both primary and secondary source were employed to make this project a Original. This information will be collected through secondary sources and oral interview. The researcher will have detail information as regards the history of Atiba. This work will be useful presently and later to the forthcoming generations to know much about the history and Origin of Atiba and its environs. The researcher has been able to establish facts and had access to the history of Atiba, also these facts had become an eye-opener as regards some traditions and customs of the Atiba people, thus the research work had widened the horizon of not only the researcher but also the people who would make use of this work day in day out.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 General Background
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Significant of Problem
1.4 Scope of Study
1.6 Literature Review
An Overview of OyoTown
2.1 Oyo in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
2.2 The Fall of Oyo Empire
2.3 The Present Oyo
The Origin and Establishment of Atiba Local Government
3.1 Origin, People and Dialects
4.0 Administration and Management of Atiba Local Government
4.1 Local Government Administration and Community Development
5.0 Achievement and Challenges of Atiba Local Government
5.1 Achievement and challenges
5.2 Economic Contribution of the People of Atiba Local Government
5.3 Contribution of Atiba Local Government to Rural Development
5.4 Summary and Conclusion
1.1 General Background
The local government is the closest tier of government to the people in Nigeria. However, local government can simply be defined as the government at the grassroots level, created to govern the affairs of a defined area.
Local government is a sub-government organ or body created by the central government of ACT of parliament to be in charge of political administration of a locality or a local unit in a state. The United Nations Department of Public Administration Defines Local government as a political subdivision of a nation which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs, including the powers to impose taxes or to exact labor for prescribed purposes. The governing body of such an entity is elected or otherwise locally selected.
A number of important factors come out very clearly firm this conception. First, that a local government is a lower government compared to a national government, second, it is set up by law and has certain responsibilities. it is normally elected hugh Whalen made some additional contribution when he arrived that, each unit of local government in any system is assumed to possess the following characteristics, a given territory and population, an institute structure, a separate legal identity, a range of powers and functions authorized by delegation from the appropriate central or intermediate “Legislature and Lastly within the ambit of such delegation autonomy subject always to the test of reasonableness.
These variables were all captured in the Nigeria’s local government reforms, which define the local government today in Nigeria hence it could be described as a government at the grassroots level established by an act of parliament to perform specific functions within its area of jurisdiction. In Nigeria, local governments were created to give self identify and local independence to groups of villages and to perform localized functions pertinent to their area of jurisdiction. Since the 1976 Reforms local government has been going through considerable changes to enables it deliver effective services to the people at the rural areas within the jurisdiction of the local governments.
Since local governments are expected to provide social amenities for their people, Atiba local government is also charged with the same responsibility. This research will therefore draw attention and describe the history of Atiba local government, OYO, OyoState 1980-2014.m Hence, issues relating to the origin and establishment, its growth and development, administration, Challenges, Achievement of the local government and other factors will be our major concern in this study.
moreover, in this project, we will see how Atiba local government area of Oyo state has acted as an agent of development in its vicinity that is, how it has contributed to the development of rural areas the contributions of the local government to the development of the people and immediate society will be evaluated during the course of this study.
1.2 Statement of Problem
years ago, Atiba local government was a rural community of Oyo State thus, this research will comment on local government and development in Nigeria, most especially the challenges of Atiba local government in the development of its environment, the roles of administrators in local level to the development of Nigeria, how Atiba local government was established, contributions of Atiba local government to people in rural areas, Social economics development in Atiba local Government.
1.3 Significance of Study
This work intends to produce a vivid account of the history of Atiba local government Oyo, OyoState from 1986-2014. This research work will contribute to knowledge by giving an in depth analysis of Atiba local government, its origin and role in the development of OyoState. Moreover, thus study will be the first major comprehensive historical analysis of Atiba local government. it will therefore serve as an important work for the future leaders within the political circle and beyond.
Lastly, this study is important because it will serve as a useful reference material for students of history.
1.4 Scope of Study
The study covers a period of seventeen years, 1980-2014. The year 1980 is significant because it was the year the local government council has contributed immensely to the socio- economic and political development of the area.
This research will make use of both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources are mainly derived from oral interview which would be conducted in OYO town and its environs. Materials like selected speeches of present of Atiba local government chairman would be utilized.
The secondary sources to be used will include books, journals and articles Etcetera relating to the subject matter. All the source material will be documented accordingly at the endnote and bibliography section of project.
1.6 Literature Review
Five books and five journals were extensively reviewed and summarized as follow:
Firstly, Kunle Ajayi, theory and practice of local Government will be useful to thus study. This book examines the justification for local government and explains the various theoretical views by scholars as rationalism for the desirability of the local government system. It also examines the personal experience of Sikiru Lawal when he held forte first, as a local government sole administrator and later as chairman. The author identifies the various challenges which militate against the ability of local government to fulfill the obligations of thirds tier of government. It also examines legal frame work and functions of local governments as particularly related to Nigeria the considers it erroneous the nation that local governments are constitutional creations with legally prescribed responsibilities. It also examines the importance of finance to local government should engage in more profitable ventures so that can generate sufficient fund, to prosecute programme that will positively affect the lives of the grassroots. It also examines the challenges of local government since the colonial era.
Secondly, Oti Eyetsemitan, Man, Government and society. An introduction to citizenship Education will also be relevant to this study this book offers explicitly the Origin of state and a dissection of extant theories of the state. however, he notes the intrinsic relationship between government and the mass media and revisited the core values of social justice, integrity, dignity, of labor, patriotism Etcetera, the text also assesses the relationship between man, his government and terminologies with a view to interpretation their relevance to different political situations. This textbook also examines the role of government in making the modern state unique. It also discusses useful tools in understanding the working and dynamics of Government and how they relate to citizen and other societies the primary purpose for government is to improve on the quality of lives of the citizen positively, the historical foundation of this work will be of helping in the development of this research.
In addition, Donald C. Rowatt > ed), International Handbook on local Government Reorganization: contemporary Development (1980) will be germane to this study. Nonetheless, John. B. Idode in this work scrutinizes the background to the establishment of local government in Nigeria. He traced the establishment of local government in Nigeria to the colonial period. He clams that the history of local government in Nigeria has been a rough one, British used our native leaders to continue ruling our traditional bounds they collected taxes and other duties, in which the system (indirect rule) was totally successful in the northern parts of the Nigeria, while it was total failure in the eastern part of the country where it met bitter opposition and agitation. He further discussed the changes local government have undertaken since independence and as such looked into the 1976 local government reform during the regime of Olusegun Obasanjo, analyzing whet is near and old in there and attempted an appraisal of the new local government system.
One important thing to realize is that this work concentrated more on the establishment of local government in Nigeria and also the improvement recorded through local government reform in Nigeria without a detail analysis of the impact of the reform of 1976 on community development in Nigeria. Regardless of these limitations, thus work would be of relevance to this study.
Furthermore, A Ada mulekun, D. Olowu, and M.Laleye (eds) local Government on West Africa since independence (1988) also provides necessary information for us R.O. Fola in this hook examined the various contending schools of thought on the responsibilities of local government. However it looked into the historical integrationist school and efficiency services school. However, he emphasized that local government is the best unit to perform efficient service at the local government in Nigeria level. J.O Egurube in the same work lectured the role of traditional rulers and the modern local government in Nigeria. He made contrast between local government in the proto-historic and contemporary context. However, his work proceeds from the idea that it is at the local government level that the conflict between “tradition and Modernity” is more pronounced. S.A. Olanrewaju on his part studied the role of local government in the economics development of Nigeria. He further identified four major governments in the economics development of Nigeria and explains how well these roles are beer accomplished by local governments in Nigeria most especially, after the 1976 local government reform.
This work serves as a major guide in a accessing the roles of local government in the economic development of Nigeria by examining different schools of thought Olarewaju in his work, however, discussed Critical issues such as interplay of the administrative, political exclusive and delegated functions of local government.
Moreover, J.O. Stewart, management in local government: A view point (1971) will be useful for this study this work analyses the use of management technique of local government Nonetheless, he argued on the need for the possibility of new approach. He therefore emphasizes the term “general management” However, this work does not tell us in particular, the management system in the local government.
Also relevant to this study is, Egugbo Chuks Cletus work organizational Behaviour, politics and the performance of organization this paper examines the individual and group behaviour in organization individuals can influence organizational performance both negatively and positively individual in the organization engage in political activity in order to acquire powers. It also argues that individuals who acquire power in an organization does so by virtue of the provision made for it by the organization and as such use it for the benefit of the organization and there should be punishment for abuse of power. People Join organization in order to have some needs satisfied, it is the responsibility of the managers to find out why their employees join their respective organization. ”To control the behaviour of man, punishment and rewards must be used” Although this work is on politics and organizational behaviour it will be of some use to this research.
In addition, the article of Akpomuine Mukoro entitled the evolution of a democratic local Government system in Nigeria journal of social science,Vol.7, No. 3(2003) is of vital important to this essay unlike most other studies this article explains local government in Nigeria as a third tier of government. It, however, stressed that what we have had is satisfactory local administration despite the fact that all regimes have come up with one Administrative reform or the other to safeguard the political autonomy of local government as the third tier of government.
In the same vein, Godley Wilson’s article, the politics of local Government Reforms and democratic Governance in Nigeria journal of Developing country studies vol3, No1 (2003) will also be relevant to this study Wilson goes in advance examining various local government reforms from the colonial era to the present government in Nigeria .He however aggress with Mukoro that the various reforms before 1976 only partially enhanced local administration this work demonstrate that it was the 1976 reform s and the 1979 constitution that official brought local government in Nigeria as the third tier of government without political autonomy or political power. He conversely emphasizes on the democratic governance of local government in Nigeria on the other hand, his work serves as a relevant guide for the objective of this essay.
Moreover, the work of Ito Diejomaoh and Eric Eboh, local Government in Nigeria: Relevance and effectiveness in poverty Reduction and economics Development Vol.1, No.1 (2010) is also relevant to this essay the work examined the various local governments in Nigeria, it importance and impact on poverty eradication, economic growth and sustainable development.
Finally, the contribution of Nno, Nekabor, Johnson, Igwe prince Ikechukwu and Taylor, Pamunosaki corruption and poverty; the experience of Nigeria is vital to this essay this paper addressee the relationship between corruption and poverty in Nigeria. this paper notes that the collapse of values, ethnic, and morality also strike at the heart of abrasive corruption which turn affects the processes of development this paper, thus, discovers the biggest relationship between corruption and the level of poverty in Nigeria the paper is composed of five sections which includes:- introductions, conceptual clarification in which the concept of poverty and corruption is examine in Nigeria, value reorientation and moral instruction as panacea to the menace of corruption.
In conclusion, all the books discuss various issues, as far as politics is concerned in Nigeria. It could be seen that general issues that concern the evolution of politics, administration and other activities within a given society dominated many of the selected literature Also these work will be of crucial importance to this research.
i. United Nations, Summer Conference in Local Government in Africa (Cambridge, 1961), 11.
ii. Hugh Whalen, “Ideology Democracy and the Foundation of Local Self Government” in L. Feldman and M. Goldrick (ed) politic and Government of Urban Canada (Toronto Methuen, 1970), 312.
iii. Halifax Sarfo Agyeman, Government Course Book-Fonky (Kumasi: 1999), 220.
iv. Ekpo A.H, “The Role of Revenue in Local Government Administration” A Paper Presented during the Training Programme/Workshop on Economic management for Local Government Officials, Concord Hotel, Owerri, 9-14 April in N.A. Ndiyo and C.N. Ekong, Fiscal Viability in Tax Administration: challenges for Local Government in Nigeria in Nigerian Journal of Social Development Issues 3, No.1 (Journal 2003), 47.
v. 1999 constitution as Amended of the Federal Republic of Nigeria-Fourth Schedule.
vi. Kunle Ajayi, Theory and Practice of Local Government (Ibadan: Johnmof Printers Limited, 2000),
vii. Eyetsemitan Oti,Man, Government, and Society: An Introduction to Citizenship Education (Lagos: Daban Printers,2003),
viii. John B. Idode, Historical Development of Local Government in Nigeria, International Handbook on Local Government Reorganization: Contemporary Development, (ed) Donald C. Rowat (London: Aldwich press, 1980)
ix. Ola R.O.F. Local Administration: Local Government in west Africa since independence (ed) L.A. Adamolekun, L.A. Olowu and M. Laleye (Lagos: University of Lagos, 1970).
x. Stewart J.D, Management in Local Government: A Viewpoint (London: Charles knight & Co LTD, 1971).
xi. Egugbos Chucks Cletu, “Organizational Behaviour, Politics and the Performance of Organizations” in Journal of Politics in Nigeria 6, No.1 & 2 (June / December 2010).
xii. Akpomuvire Mukoro, “The Evolution of a Democratic Local Government System in Nigeria” in Journal of Social science 7,No.3 (2003),171-179.
xiii. Goddey Willson, “The Politics of Local Government Reforms and Democratic Governance” in Journal of Country Studies 3, No.1 (2003), 158-177.
xiv. Ito Diejomah and Eric Eboh, “Local Government in Nigeria: Relevance and effectiveness in Poverty Reduction and Economic Development” in Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 1,No.1 (2010), 12-28
xv. Nekabari Johnson Nna, “Corruption and Poverty: The experience of Nigeria.” in Journal of Politics in Nigeria 6, No.1 & 2 (June/December 2010), 17-23.
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