CAUSES OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION, A CASE STUDY OF OWODE AREA OF OYO, OYO STATE
Traffic congestion is a major urban transport problem in most countries. The demand for road space is greater than the supply because the rate of provision of transport facilities is less than the rate of growth of vehicle ownership and use which result into traffic congestion. This research work focused on causes of traffic congestion in Owode area of Oyo State. Data for this study was collected through observation recorded on a check list and the use of questionnaire as a form of primary source of data. Chi-square method was adopted in analysis of the data collected along with the use of simple percentage. The findings of the research revealed that poor and narrow roads as well as high number of trucks on the road had greater influence on causes of traffic congestion in the area. Therefore, it was suggested that government should give greater priority to rapid mass transit, construction and development of roads networks should be embarked upon, also traffic light should be made available to control the traffic flow at Owode area of Oyo town.
1.1 Background of the Study
Cities and traffic have developed hand-in hand since the earliest large human settlement. The same forces that draw inhabitants to congregate in large urban areas also lead to sometimes intolerable levels of traffic congestion on urban street and thorough fares. Effective urban governance requires a careful balancing between the benefits of agglomeration and the disadvantages of the excessive congestion.
Road traffic congestion poses a challenge for all large and growing urban areas. The full report on which this summary is based aims to provide policy maker and technical staff with the strategic vision, conceptual framework and guidance on some of the practical tools necessary to manage congestion in such a way as to reduce its overall impact on individuals, families, communities and societies.
Urban traffic congestion is a significant and growing problem in many parts of the world. Moreover, as congestion continues to increase, the conventional approach of building more roads doesn’t always work for a variety of political, financial and environmental reasons. In fact, building new roads can actually compound congestion, in some cases, by inducing greater demands for vehicle travel that quickly eat away the additional capacity? Against this backdrop of serious existing and growing congestion traffic control techniques and information systems are needed that can substantially increase capacity and improve flow efficiency by Abhay (2008).
The application of ITS technologies in areas such as road user information and navigation systems, improved traffic control system and vehicle guidance and control systems has significant potential for relieving traffic congestions.
Traffic congestions and the cost of providing mobility are compelling issues to planners, decision makers and members of both the business community and the general public transportation and the degree of efficiency with which it is accomplished, affect us all. Therefore we are constantly in search of the solutions to our transportation problems that will give us not only increased mobility, but also greater economic productivity and a cleaner environment.
While new road construction contemporarily relieve congestion in the longer term it simply encourages further growth in car traffic through increased travel and a switch away from public transport. Beside this, suitable corridors in our cities for major roadwork’s is becoming more and more difficult, and many recent major project involve turrets to minimize environmental disruption and community opposition, thereby raising costs. In the past decades, a new wave of Intelligent Transport System (ITS) has emerged around the world to provide additional tools to help solve over transport systems can produce major benefits in reducing congestion, accident and environmental impacts, and make significant improvement to the efficiency of commercial and public transport fleets, and to intermodal integration. ITS can also reduce the need for expensive new transport infrastructural by maximizing the efficiency of our existing facilities.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Traffic congestion is a major urban transport problem. Due to traffic congestion, there is possibility of accidents because of poor traffic management.
To eliminate road accidents and to save precious human life it is essential to find proper solution for traffic congestion. In this paper, traffic congestion problem in Owode area of Oyo, Oyo state is identified and studied for finding out the causes and proposed solution of it. In the recent years, there has been a considerable loss due to the accidents to the precious human life and to the vehicles to some extend in Owode area of Oyo, Oyo state.
1.3 Significance of the Study
The following are the significance of this study
1.4 Aim of the Study
To determine the main factors responsible for the traffic congestion in the study area.
1.5 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study include:-
1.6 Research Question
I. What are the major causes of traffic congestion in the area?
ii. What are the effects of congestion in the area?
iii. What are the possible solutions to the problems of traffic congestion in the study area?
1.7 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis were tested:- for the purpose of this research.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This research work covers Owode junction and all the routes that take their sources from it which are junction from GT bank to first bank which consist in the converging point for roads linking (Akesan, Isokun, Jabata)
1.9 Study Area
Location of Oyo
Oyo happens to be the administrative headquarters of Oyo region, which metamorphosized from old Oyo empire through various political arrangement such as Oyo empire, Oyo division, Oyo local government and the present setting of four local governments namely, Afijio, Atiba, Oyo east and Oyo west local government areas, Odedare (2008).
The region as presently constituted lies within latitudes 07048’00N and 08022’00’’N, and longitudes 03047’00’’E and W 04005’00”E. The region lies within 859834mN and 926523mN, and 590879ME and 62215ME on universal Traverse Mercator Projection.
Oyo, its traditional headquarter is located on A1 Ibadan to Kaduna trunk road which again lies on the expressionary from Ibadan to Ilorin which is partly completed and partly under construction as at the of writing.
Location of Oyo in National Setting
The region is bonded in the North by Orelope and Olorunsogo local government of Oyo state in the East by Onire, Ogo-oluwa local government (Osun State) in the south by Akinyele and Ido local government.
The region covers 1, 130 square kilometres in landmass having 57.9 square kilometres urban area and 667.5 square kilometres (59%) rural areas complemented by 404:617 square kilometres (35.8%) forest reserved hosting Old Oyo National Park.
Climatic Characteristics of Oyo
It characteristically experiences two distinct seasons, the wet or rainy season and the dry season.
i. The raining season:- This characteristically occurs between late march/early April and late October/early November. The region thus experiences about twenty-eight weeks of rains. The wet season is divided into two, the first which is early wet or raining season which of course is very short and occur between the outset of the rain and the short dry season otherwise called the august break. (Aderibigbe (2010).
There is a double maximum with the first peaks is occurring between June and July, while the second occurs between late September and early October.
ii. Dry season:- This occurs between late October/early November and late march/early April. The period of the short dry season vanes depending on some local and regional conditions as well as seasonal changes.
The highest temperature occurs at the onset of raining season between late March and early April and this eventually gives way to relatively low temperature in July and September.
Temperature condition remains virtually unchanged throughout the year with exception of some areas with local influence like areas around the major water bodies passing across the region like Erelu dam, Aawon and others which feel the influence of breezes from them by Aderibigbe (2010).
Soil Resources in Oyo
Soil is a renewable resource, it is a living system and is a medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth.
The substance of soil exists in all three states solid, liquid and gas. The solid portion consists of both inorganic (mineral) and organic substances, the liquid present in the soil are a complex solution capable of engaging in a multitude of important chemical reaction. Gases, present in the open pores of the soil, consist not only of the atmospheric gases, but also gases liberated by biological activity and chemical reactions within the soil.
Nature of Soil
The nature, quality and types of soils in Oyo region are greatly influenced by certain factors and processes. These factors include the nature of the parent material, the local climate, topography, organic influences or biotic factors and time factors.
Maintenance of Soil Resources
The nature is our most important natural heritage which in its virgin state is the store house for plant food. The fertility of the soil is measured by its capacity to produce crop and is dependent on its ability to supply the roots of the growing plants with water, oxygen and nutrients by Ojo (2002).
Population in Oyo land
Population can be defined as the total number of the people that live in a geographical area. Population geography focuses on the number composition, and distribution of human beings in relation to variations in the conditions of earth space. Population constitutes a vital component of the resources base and the development potential of any geographical area. The main element of the include it size, rate of growth, spatial distribution, demographic structure and quality, in terms of education, health and social welfare.(Afolayan,1978)
Population size and growth
Population growth is made possible by three influential factors of fertility, mortality and migration. Although the global population growth rate is slowing, worldwide population is expected to continue to grow over the next two decades due to large numbers of women of child bearing age in countries where fertility rates remain high.
One unique feature of every, settlements is the people it contain and population being the life and functional part, is quite dynamic and remains unstatic at any given point in time and place. This section focuses on the size and growth of population of Oyo-land. The 1991 population census gave the population size of Oyo land as 343,690 constituting about 9.95% of the people in Oyo state.
Importantly, these people then resided in two local government areas that is, 82, 792 people constituting 24% of the people that live in Afijio local Government Area; while the remaining bulk of 260,898 people occupied the then Oyo local government area, which is 76% (adapted from NPC 1991 census in Nigeria) Jimoh (2003)
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