+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
info@grossarchive.com


PREPARATION OF SOAP USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF OILS AND EXPLORING ITS PROPERTIES

(Chemical Engineering )

           PREPARATION OF SOAP USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF OILS AND EXPLORING ITS PROPERTIES

ABSTRACT

Soaps are the sodium salts or potassium salts of stearic acids or any other fatty acids. They are prepared by the saponification process, which is, reacting the oil which contain triglycerides with caustic soda (NaOH) to give the soap. However different oils have different composition of fatty acids which are responsible for different properties of soaps made out of them. In the present work 5 different types of oils are taken. They are blended in various ratios to prepare 14 different samples of soap. Different properties of these samples were analyzed to see which soap is the best one. The cleansing and lathering properties of all samples were compared. The blend of coconut oil and castor oil at 3:1 ratio is found out to be the best with 76.8% of TFM and 89.46% of yield. The best blend is analyzed for various properties and they were compared with that given in the literature. The saponification values, iodine values of coconut oil and castor oil were found out and these values were also found for the blend. It was found that the blend was having SAP value of 230.4 and iodine value of 40 which are higher than the individual values. Thus soap prepared using blend of both these oils has better properties than the soaps prepared by individual oils.

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1

Introduction

 

 

Chapter 2

Literature Review

 

 

2.1

Semi Boiled Process

 

 

2.2

Full Boiled

 

 

2.3

Cold Process

 

 

2.4

Different types of soap making oils

 

 

2.5

Castor Oil

 

 

2.6

Olive Oil

 

 

2.7

Neem Oil

 

 

3.1

Coconut Oil

 

 

Chapter 3

Materials and Methods

 

 

3.1

Materials Required

 

 

3.2

Methodology

 

 

3.2.1

Preparation of Soap

 

 

3.2.2

Comparing different

 

 

 

properties of soap with detergent

 

 

3.2.3

Blending of Oils

 

 

 

3.2.4

Calculation of TFM

 

3.2.5

Calculation of free alkali

 

3.2.6

Analysis of the best blend

 

3.2.7

Saponification Value

 

3.2.8

Iodine Value

 

3.2.9

Unsaponifiable Matter

 

3.2.10

Acid Value

 

Chapter 4

Results and Discussion

 

4.1

Comparison of soap and detergent

 

4.2

Properties of soap after blending of oils

 

4.3

TFM values of soaps

 

4.4

Analysis of the best blend

 

4.5

Saponification Values

 

4.5

Iodine Values

 

4.6

Unsaponifiable Matter

 

4.7

Acid Value

 

Chapter 5

Conclusion

 

Chapter 6

References

 

 

List of Tables

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sl.no.

Name of the table

Page

 

 

 

no.

 

 

 

 

 

1

Composition of coconut oil

13

 

 

 

 

 

2

Yield of soap using individual oils

23

 

 

 

 

 

3

Properties of soap versus detergent

23

 

 

 

 

 

4

Moisture and Hardness of soap samples from

24

 

 

individual oils

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Yield and pH values of soap samples from blending of

24

 

 

oils

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

Lathering and cleansing power of soap samples from

25

 

 

blending of oils

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Moisture and Hardness of soap samples from blending

26

 

 

of oils

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

Total fatty matter of best blends of oils

27

 

 

 

 

 

9

Saponification value of the oil blend

28

 

 

 

 

 

10

Iodine value of the oil blend

28

 

 

 

 

 

11

Unsaponifiable matter

29

 

 

 

 

 

12

Acid Value of the oil blend

30

 

 

 

 

 

                 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 Introduction:

A soap is a salt of a compound, known as a fatty acid. A soap molecule has a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic acid group on one end, which has ionic bond with metal ion, usually sodium or potassium. The hydrocarbon end is non polar which is highly soluble in non polar substances and the ionic end is soluble in water. The structure of the soap molecule is represented below:

The cleaning action of soapsbecause of their ability to emulsify or disperse water-insoluble materials and hold them in the suspension of water. This ability is seen from the molecular structure of soaps. When soap is added to water that contains oil or other water-insoluble materials, the soap or detergent molecules surround the oil droplets. The oil is, dissolved in the alkyl groups of the soap molecules while the ionic end allows it to be dissolved in water. As a result, the oil droplets are to be dispersed throughout the water and can be washed away.

A number of things affect the soap-making process and the quality of this soap produced. The characteristics of this soap depend on the quality of oil, and the amounts of the caustic soda and water used to make it. The speed of the reaction between the oil and the caustic soda is influenced by free fatty acid content of the oil, the heat of the components before mixing, and how vigorously the mixing is to be done. Free fatty acid contents, vigorous mixing, and heat, speed up the given soap-making process.

Castile soap: a mild soap originally made in Spain with pure olive oil. Today many “castile” soaps are made with other vegetable oils. Castile is agood cleanser, producing a rich lather. Cream soaps: soaps containing cold cream materials, and moisturizers. Cream soaps are good for dry and delicate skin

Deodorant soap are soaps to which antibacterial agents have been added to reduce odor-causing bacteria. Floating soaps: soaps which have air bubbles incorporated have low density. This causes the bar to float.Hypo-allergenic soaps: Mild formula soaps, low in potent irritants. They generally produce a poor lather.

Milled soaps: these are the most commonly used, mass produced soaps. Milling is referred to the mixing of colour and soap flakes.

Oatmeal soap: A rough textured soap to which oatmeal has been added as a mild abrasive and lather. Good for and normal skin.

A good soap is biodegradable when it does not contain chemicals that cannot be made to their natural elements. Neither does it contain chemicals that can be harmful to the environment or cause undue destruction to the environment.

·         A good soap gets dissolved easily and remove stains from the clothes, human skin or any material being cleaned.

·         It gets dissolved in water and produces enough suds.

·         It gives a clear and sparkling kind of cleanliness.

·         It gives a pleasant smell.

·         A good soap does not leave sticky traces on the clothes or on the skin.

·         It has a good color that is even and does not streak.

·         It disinfects and kills germs.

·         It does not damage the fibers or textiles.

 TERMS AND CONDITIONS

Using our service is LEGAL and IS NOT prohibited by any university/college policies

You are allowed to use the original model papers you will receive in the following ways:

1. As a source for additional understanding of the subject

2. As a source for ideas for your own research (if properly referenced)

3. For PROPER paraphrasing (see your university definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase)

4. Direct citing (if referenced properly)

Thank you so much for your respect to the authors copyright.

For more project materials

Log on to www.grossarchive.com

Or call

+2348130686500

+2348093423853

 

500
Leave a comment...