PRIVATE PARTICIPATION IN THE EDUCATION OF THE CHILD IN NIGERIA:
PROBLEM AND PROSPECT OF STUDY IN OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE
This study was carried out to determine the impact of private participation in the education of the child in Nigeria, problem and prospect. A study of Oredo LGA of Edo State. To achieve the said goals, the researcher carried out investigation by designing interview form for the proprietors and principals. Data collected from the interview were carefully studied and analyzed. The study will find out the impact of private participation in the education of the child. Summary, conclusion and recommendation would be made on how private schools has contributed in the development of various aspect of secondary education. In order to attain good standard in Oredo LGA of Edo State.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Purpose of the study
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
1.9 Definition of terms
2.1 Literature review
2.2 Concept of education
2.3 Concept of curriculum
2.4 Implementation of the school curriculum in Nigeria
2.5 Proponents and cities of private schools
2.6 Laboratory facilities
2.7 Library facilities
2.8 Building and furniture
3.1 Design of study
3.2 Population of study
3.3 Procedure for data collection
3.4 Method of analysis
4.1 Interpretation and Analysis of Data
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The truism that the demand for higher education, and particularly university education, is on the increase throughout the world is impossible to exaggerate. This could be seen as a re-awakening of universities to their raison d’être. In the early universities, scholars devoted their efforts to the generation of knowledge and truth, irrespective of whether or not such knowledge had social utility (Osagie, 2009: 110). This was the classical case of knowledge qua knowledge; where knowledge was pursued purely for the sake of knowledge (Ramkissoon, 2008). In yesteryears, it was popular and indeed acceptable to think of the strength of an economy in terms of the stock of its physical factors, especially, the natural recourses, such as land; physical capital and skilled labour, among others. Today, however, many economies are moving away from this archaic, almost static perception, towards what is now known as a knowledge-based economy; “one in which the generation, exploitation, dissemination and sharing of knowledge has come to play the prominent part in the creation of wealth” (DTI, in Ramkissoon, 2008:2). A knowledge-based economy is not just a matter of pushing back the frontiers of knowledge; it is also, and probably more so, about the most effective use and exploitation of all types of knowledge in all manner of economic activity (Brinkley, 2006:4).
Indeed, the World Bank (1998) has observed that “For countries in the vanguard of the world economy, the balance between knowledge and resources has shifted towards the former; knowledge has become, perhaps, the most important factor determining the standard of living ….. Today’s most technologically advanced economies are truly knowledge based”. In the same vein, according to Cader (2008), although “all economies have some stock of knowledge … those that are growing are distinguished by the generation of new knowledge derived from existing knowledge”. This is how Vuksan, Delic and Przulj (2008: 171) put it, “In today’s open and competitive economy, knowledge and innovation become major driving factors of growth and economic development”. In other words, economic success is increasingly becoming based on the effective utilization of intangible assets such as knowledge, skills and innovative potential as the key resources for getting and retaining competitive advantage. According to Brinkley (2006), the term knowledge economy is used to describe the emerging economic structure. The quality and depth of the knowledge content of a society, therefore, determines its strength, its prospects and its future. Shapira, et al (2005) have defined knowledge content as “the sum of human capacities, leadership assets, and experience, technology and information capital, collaborative relationships, intellectual property, information stocks and capabilities for shared learning and utilization that can be used to create wealth and foster economic competitiveness”. The ability to store, share, analyze and retrieve knowledge through networks and communities, especially using the information and communication technologies, allows communities to exploit the unique properties of knowledge to gain, retain and expand their competitive edge. Perhaps the most important property of knowledge is that it is the ultimate economic renewable; in the sense that the stock of knowledge, unlike traditional factors of production, is not depleted by use, rather the value and utility of knowledge to an economy comes from sharing it with others.
Characteristically, knowledge is essentially a public good because it can be accessed and it easily leaks. It is, therefore, very difficult, if not out rightly impossible, for an economy, society or community to seek to retain and cage its stock of knowledge just for its own advantage, for any length of time. This is why countries like Nigeria have been unable to halt the brain drain that started in the wake of the Structural Adjustment Programme of the 1980s, without infringing on the fundamental human rights of academics. In the new conception of economic development, where high value production base has shifted to information and knowledge, the quality of educational systems becomes an essential component of a country’s capacity and capability to respond to the challenges that confront them. The role of the educational system is to generate intellectual, professionally skilled, and competent human capital that will benefit economic and the country’s development. A perquisite for an effective participation of the people in the emerging knowledge-based economy and the society at large is the possession of the basic level of linguistic, scientific, mathematical, tecnological and social education (Vuskan, Delic and Przulj, 2008). Because it is now conceived as an economic good, on the one hand, and as the core driver of the modern economy, on the other, OECD has recommended the massive stepping up of investment in knowledge (Brinkley, 2006:7). Investment in knowledge is synonymous with investing in education. As stated earlier, universities have been the traditional repositories of knowledge; the highest concentration of intellectual strength. They are, therefore, best suited to create and disseminate knowledge through their students. As carriers of knowledge, students with university-processed knowledge are the engines of the modern economy, future labour force; they play vital roles in the national and international public society. Therefore, tertiary institutions, and particularly, universities are inevitable contributors to national development. It is, therefore, against the background of the very strategic position of universities in the generation and dissemination of the knowledge needed to drive today’s economy that this contribution is made. The rest of the write up is segmented into seven sections. First, an attempt is made to survey the evolution of higher education, focusing on Nigeria; this is followed by discussing the emergence of private participation in higher education, focusing on university education. Then, we examined the persistent and recurrent challenges of public universities, as the landscape. We then examined some of the roles that private universities are playing in alleviating the challenges that have plagued public universities, thereby contributing to national development. We also considered some of the challenges currently facing private universities in Nigeria, and looked at some of the options available to alleviate them. Finally, we made our concluding remarks.
The world is a very attractive flower, but it is difficult to raise. To do so successfully, you need to control the temperature the light and the size of the flower pot. The orchid is sensitive to soil and fertilizer, and is easily damaged by disease and insects. This is very common to fail sat ones attempts at raising an orchid. Rearing children is more difficult and complicated and also requires careful attention so it is common for parents to feel a loose when it comes to child rearing. Many feel the need for help, life and orchid grower who needs advice from an expert. Obviously, every parents want to get best guidance. Where can such guidance be found. (Watchtower June 15, 2004).
Education is the greatest tool or instrument for the political, socio-economic and cultural determination of man from the path of ignorance. The benefit of education in the over all development of Nigeria through the inculcation of desirable knowledge and wisdom to the citizens, can never be over emphasized. Thus, the development of education would ensure the dignity of labour in the youths by being interested in craftsmanship. This measure would inevitably result to a greater level of socio-political development; economic reconstruction and technological improvement.
The national policy on Education which came as a result of Nigeria effort to formulate a desirable education basic philosophy would indeed make the nation a self-reliant economy and thereby focus attention on the inclination of national consciousness, unity in diversity and the acquisition of appropriate knowledge, abilities, skills and competences for self-reliance whether at individual or national level. The greatest tool or instrument for the political, socio-economic and cultural determination of man from the path of ignorance. The benefit of education in the overall development of Nigeria through the inclination of desirable knowledge and wisdom to the citizens, can never be over emphasized.
Fafunwa (2001:2002) posited that education is the aggregation of all the processes by which a person develops abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour of positive and meaningful value in the society in which we live. He therefore, unequivocally made it clear that this would make the child think effectively and make relevant judgment. The national policy on education was actually aimed at eradicating any existing contractions and ambiguities in the educational practice in the country.
Structurally, it provided a three-year- junior secondary school.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Private schools are institutions that are administered and financed by a group of, voluntary organization on the other agencies that after secondary level instruction. The government do not find any assistance in form of grant or otherwise in the running/management of the institutions. According to (Essien 2002 pg 4 education and challenge). The private schools are agent of implementation of the curriculum. However, there has been a lot of arguments and counter-arguments as to meet the standard requirement. It is against this background that a research of this kind is to find out whether private schools meet the adequate standard by the national policy.
The following research questions are asked
1. What are the contributions of these private schools to overall development of secondary education?
2. To what extent have the private schools diversified curriculum content to cater for the differences in the talents, opportunity and roles open to the students?
3. What are the problems militating against the smooth education?
4. What is the quality of the students, private schools have produced in secondary?
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to determine the extent private schools perform in senior secondary school certificate examination, determine the manpower quality of the private schools, the extent of private schools involvement in the provision of education facilities such as teaching and infrastructure and laboratories. It will also examine the impact of private schools on the standard of education in Edo State like quantitative teachers, fees and standard facilities necessary for education.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study lies in the fact that it will add to existing literature on the private schools. The private schools bring more uniqueness to the study of the study that is capable in learning.
SCOPES OF THE STUDY
Private participation in education of the child in Nigeria is not peculiar to Oredo Local Government Area alone but all local government areas in the state and Nigeria in general. The researcher intends to analyze the participation of private schools in the education of the child and the quality of education given to them and comparing it to that of the public or government owned schools in Oredo Local Government Area. The time span will be 2004 to 2006
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Some terms which are used in the research work which is peculiar to the research are defined to enable us understand the context they are being used.
LGA: Local Government Area.
Instructional Materials: These are teaching materials which teachers use to enable a better understanding of the subject by the students.
Private Schools: These are schools (secondary) owned by individuals.
Public schools: These schools are owned and administrated by the state or federal government.
Child: A students of secondary education level, attending either a private or public schools.
SSCE: Senior secondary certificate examination.
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