EFFECT OF MANUAL LABOUR ON CHILDREN ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE ABSTRACT The study examined the effects of manual labour on primary school pupils academics performance in Ovia North East LGA of Edo State. Simple random sampling techniques was used to select two hundred respondents that supplied information on the questionnaires. Chi-square statistical analysis was used to test all the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The result shows that there was no significant difference between teachers and pupils perceived effects of manual labour on academic performance. Based on the analyzed data, the researcher recommended that parents and guardians should be educated on the effect of manual labor on pupils academic performances. TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE Introduction Background of the study Statement of the problem Purpose of the study Research questions Scope of the study Limitation Significance of the study Definition of terms CHAPTER TWO Literature review CHAPTER THREE Research design Population of the study Sample and sampling procedure Research instrument Validity and reliability of the instrument Administration of questionnaire Method of data analysis CHAPTER FOUR Analysis of data collection CHAPTER FIVE Summary Recommendation Conclusion REFERENCES QUESTIONNAIRE CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Marriage is solemnized amidst furfures, pageantry and prayers from parents of the couples and clergyman as the case may be. Traditionally, the deities and goddess were consulted prior to the wedding to ascertain the fruitfulness of the marriage. According to Awoyemi (1983) he explained that necessary rites and rituals were performed to ensure that the couples are blessed with male and female. in the contemporary societies Babalola (1989) observed that the rains of prayers were designed to seek God’s blessings on the wives wombs so that marriage could stand the test of time. She further emphasized that as a result of the significance attached to the arrival of a new born baby. According to Oyinloye (1993) the child receives gift most especially on the eight day many friends relatives as well as well visited the family to felicitate with the parents. These gestures explain the importance attached to a child with the parents. Childs in the African traditional society and inspite in the westernization and cultural infiltration, the child is valued heritage from God. Adeola (1980) reports that as the child grows, most especially in the traditional African society the training and education of the child was the entire responsibility of the community. Hence, she emphasized the child grows up in a more affectionate and discipline community where the internalization of the society norms and values are ensured. However, in the contemporary societies the child grows in different environment terrain depending on demographic structure. In some families Kudabo (1993) observed that the female child was regarded as a priesthood tender and valuable tool that must be handled with utmost care. According to Isah (1994) male in Hausa most especially in the uneducated family is made to face the realities and challenges of life cultured uneducated etc. he stressed that the male child is denied education (western) and he is exposed unduly to environmental hazard. Writing on sex preference in some cultures in Nigeria Bolorunduro (1997)explains that the girls in Ibo land is breadwinners to the family and the males in northern parts of the country is expected to fund for himself at a tender age. In Yoruba community. Ologunagba (1982) observes that although the make child is highly desired family because of many reasons which may continually in family name, the female child was never sidelined. However, the man theme of this research is not the issues of sex preference but incidence of manual labour on pupils academic performance in our society. Due to several reasons which economic realities the child most especially in the contemporary society is exposed to environment that is inimical to his/her growth and development. Across the globe, the issue of child manual labour is prevalent, although empirical studies shows that it is common in all cultures in spite of socio-economic aground of the families. Miclandles (1992) United Nations awareness of punitive measures and treatment against the child necessitated that may 27th every year be set aside for children’s day. During the celebration, issues concerning the growth and development of the child in terms of nutrition, disease, education delinquency, deprivation of rights, etc were deliberated upon, and annually the organization United Nations Organization (UNO) gives declarations of designed to improve the life of child. Deprivation of the child’s rights through conscious and unconscious, coded and uncoded rules influences the child’s development greatly, hence this study focused on the effect of manual labour on academic achievement of the child. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Recent development in the society coupled with economic realities influences the parent behaviours and attitude towards their wards and children. These hardships forces parents to solicit for the assistance of the children in their trades to improve economic viability of the home. There is continuous decreasing of the children interest in school activities resulting in flagrant disobedience to school rules and regulation such as truancy absenteeism and even school dropout. Failure on both internal and external examinations have also reached alarming rate and these are reports of children taking on Nigeria streets. Therefore, the study attempts to examine the influence of manual labour on academic performance of primary school pupils. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The main objective of the study is to examine the effects of manual labour on children’s academic performance in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. It also suggested ways to improve children welfare and academic performance in schools. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS There is no significant difference between teachers and pupils perceived effects of manual labour on academic performance., There is no significant difference between male and female pupils perceived effects of manual labour on academic performance. There is no significant difference between rural and urban teachers perceived effects of manual labour on academic performance. There I no significant difference between male and female teachers perceived effect of manual labour on academic performance. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The findings should be of immense benefits to children handlers, government, parents and guidance and non-governmental organization specifically the findings should serve as information needed by the government to take necessary steps against people that maltreat children. Also the findings would provide useful information to national and international organization on the plight of children in the country. Finally, findings would serve as terms of reference for future research. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study is limited to ten primary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State and also focuses on the effects of manual labour on academic performance of primary school children. DEFINITION OF TERMS Pupils: Is an individual aged six and eleven years Primary school: Is the elementary school that train children aged six and eleven years. Manual labour: Is usually physical activities engaged in the children Academic performance: Is the level of pupils progress in the class.
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