FACTORS AFFECTING THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN CLASSROOM TEACHING IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN JALINGO EDUCATIONAL ZONE OF TARABA STATE. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study Individuals and the society have seen education as the key to success in life. In all human societies, past and present, education has been instrumental to impacting positively to the survival of individuals and the society. The capacity of development in any country can be measured through a properly planned and well directed education. Thus, Education is a behavioral characteristic. It impacts skills, attitudes, belief, ability to reason, knowledge and any other form which enable one to adjust and interact effectively with other individuals. Through the acquisition of skills, it enable an individual and the group to proceed into the actualization of the individuals destiny. Indeed, Instructional materials provides concepts and attitudes to the student which improved his skills, ability to reason and makes him/her informed about what is going on in the global village. Education has helped to bring the entire world into an entity through the information and knowledge education has helped us to achieve. Education has helped to reduce the problem of language barrier. Through instructions and teaching by your teacher, Individual has acquired different languages outside the traditional language. This has led the individual to associate properly with people from different countries. It has helped one to adjust from his traditional behaviour to a more modest behaviour that makes the individual to be accommodated any part of the world he visits. Education has been a means to an end. That a country is developed is as a result of instructional aid created by education. It serves as a catalyst to governmental principles, policies and laws. With the acquisition of knowledge, and the society structured their means of livelihood. Instructional material is an aid to teaching and learning. It helps to raise learning from verbalization to practical aspect of teaching and learning. Instructional materials makes teaching and learning interesting, easy and amusing. It makes learning more effective (Clark, 1997). In another development, the use of instructional materials makes different continents to shape their rules and regulations, to accommodate the other. This they do by providing them with the socio-cultural and political differences and how to adjust the traditional socio-cultural and political ways and accommodate another. An instructional material makes students understand more easily when the teacher makes use of working model. It makes the teachers task easier and more effective. Olardi (1990) has highlighted the impact of instructional materials that teachers use to improve the students from understanding and perception of the subject as an enhanced aids. It brings clarity and creates recognition that allow them to have a realistic hand and a total knowledge of the subject. It enhanced learning, improve the competence of learners and makes learning more meaningful to students. In Jalingo Educational zone Taraba, teaching and learning through the use of instructional materials facilitates, stimulates and aids students to take active interest in any topic introduced by the teaching. In structural materials has emotional impact on the students of Jalingo Educational zone Taraba and affects their attitude towards what is presented as the topic to study by the teacher. It provides both the teacher and students with relevance and meaningful source of information. Kay (2008), Instructional materials stimulate the students desire to learn. It assist learning process by making assimilation and memorization of materials easy. Also, it helps to hold attention, include greater acquisition and, as well as objectives which may be in accessible to many students. Finally, an instructional material makes learning available to a wider audience, control the pace of learning, promote better understanding and help to overcome physical difficulties in presenting the subject content. Instructional materials can be seen as those materials, which aid the teacher in teaching his/her lesson in the class. Teaching materials, educational aids or curriculum materials succinctly by Oyejemezi, (2001) as all the sense and fallings and aid learning. According to Corey (1967) instructional materials is simply as an effect to manipulate the environment of individual in the hope of generating a change in behaviour of other learning outcome in a short time period, with the probability of fewer undesirable side effects and more economically that alternative or completing technologies. Thus, this definition recognizes the importance or role of development of the personality of the learner and time saving for the teacher and learning time for the students. Carton (1965) defined instructional materials as all kind of materials that can assist in the teaching and learning process. According to Nacino-Brown (1982) on his part viewed instructional materials as those materials which can be used to make learning more valid and interesting. He also contended that these materials vary from very simple to complex. Such as conventional chalk board, flat picture, diagrams, illustration and maps to more compliance and expensive ones like the television sets, radio, projector, slides and film strip projectors other not mentioned are numerous but the classification of audio-visual materials. According to Ogunlade (2005) perceived instructional materials as all materials that a teacher can turn t6o for effective instruction. These include among others, the people, events and materials can help to make our learning activities effective. Okorie (1979) said that “it is difficult to define it term in its entirety” in spite of these short coming Inflow (1968) proposed that any instructional materials used to supplement the normal learning process of listening, seeing, reading, and writing are to be regarded as audio-visual aids. From the foregoing definitions, it is quite obvious that instructional materials are based on such a concert which emphasizes the learners’ behaviour and the conditions under which such behaviour will occur. It is a very definite statement, which shows performance expected of the pupils skill and ideas after the pupils must have been exposed of the pupils skills and ideas , after the pupils must been used to the instruction. Components of such behaviour objectives are what conditions the students should perform, and what level of competence the pupils should exhibit. According to Bell-Gam (2002) instructional materials is seen as materials such as electronic, charts, visual, audio visual that can facilitate teaching and learning to achieve the target objectives. These definitions imply that whatever a teacher seeks to achieve with his students, his aspiration will be influenced by the teaching and instructional materials available for the lesson. It is interesting to note that a large percentage of trained teachers and those undergoing professional training course can teach with some of those teaching aids. They do so consciously because during teaching practice supervision reveals. According to Deborah (1973) viewed instructional materials as materials used in the teaching of business studies which throw more light into what is being in the class. This will help the pupils or students who are slow to understand abstractions when the truth of these abstractions is shown in a concrete manner. They lead to fair greater understanding of the course4 that could ever be obtained by chalk and talk methods. They however said, “We know the fine work that the infants and Collegeof Education, Ekiadolor are doing with their led and counts to help in the understanding of the abstract nature of business. We in our use of teaching aid must do the same for the further study of business to this end the teaching aids in addition to the practical apparatus should have a library of somewhat more specialized book in addition to those in the general school library. With the presence of teaching aids or materials teachers will be able to bring business studies from its abstract world to a more concrete experience, with these stable and healthy climates which exist for learning to take place. Instructional materials are those things which help teaching and learning process the help to promote understanding of concepts and generalization by making lessons practical and realistic. Any teacher who has the interest of his students at heart is bound to think of the ways and means he will employ to make his teaching and learning process effective and interesting to the students. Educationists have classified teaching aids into visual audio and audio visuals, which comprise of chalkboard, fennel boards, models, real things over head projectors, slid projectors film, tape recorder radio television etc verbal education cannot give a vivid picture of learning situation. Therefore teachers need to use the wide varieties of instructional materials available in the form of printed or real materials which are of great importance in the teaching and learning situation. According to Adeniyi (2000), the use of teaching aids and materials are to communicate move permanently and information is retained when supplemented with aid certainly instructional materials which carefully selected and skillfully used. It also make learning more effective therefore, it becomes necessary to investigate how instructional materials serve as tools in the teaching and learning situation. However, man and animals possess the necessary abilities for learning, in other words they are potential learners certain factors within and outside the learner determines how effectively, each individual learners learns the factors are referred to as internal when they lie with the learner and external when they lie outsides the learner. The above mentioned factors influence the quantity and quality of learning factors interact with external factors the learning social environment in a given learner such interaction leads to the development of an individual’s intellect. The intellectual development of the learner accounts for the quantity and quality of civilization which a particular learner can generate. The volume and rate of generation of new knowledge have pass the formal institution. In order acquire these goals the available communication resources (instructional materials) need to be used in ways in which give a better advantage in improving the teaching and learning situation in Ilaje Educational zone Taraba of Ondo State, children in most school often do not understand what their teacher taught them they do not even grab the silent point of what they are taught so easily because there is no sue of instructional materials. Whatever they learn does not seen important in them what pupils or students do not see clearly, what they were supposed to learn or given the opportunity to make sure of the knowledge they have acquired so learning because non-functional. Instructional materials are aids to the pupils of students in the teaching and learning situation in the pupils academic performance. Statement of the Problem The use of instructional materials has lots of general benefits that guides a greater impact in teaching and learning process. The teachers level of resourcefulness, creativity, and imagination is credited to the achievement of quality education. These are expressed in how well the teacher is able to perceive, create and use the relevant information that can enhance and promote effective teaching and learning activities. In Taraba State, there is a fair use of instructional materials which makes teaching and learning activities mere theoretical, abstract and ineffective. The issue of whether instructional materials provides the necessary knowledge is widely recognized in the central role the assimilation and retention of information it makes available to a wider audience. Instructional materials is a major determining variables that control the pace of learning. It has to do with the creation of an environment in which students can develop their full potentials and lead productive lives in accordance with the demands of their interest and needs either as individuals or as group within the society. The Nigerian government, at all levels has over the years placed enormous emphasis on instructional materials in shaping efforts and strategies aimed at improving students standard of learning in the country but both theoretical and empirical literature failed to captive the real factors as to why the standard of education in the country still remain very low. Okereke (2009) observes that many schools in the state cannot boast of instructional materials. He contends that every government should contend with the issue of making education her priority to help improve our standard of learning by providing the required instructional materials to schools. Obasi (2010) holds the view that government should provide funds to principals who monitors the teaching staff to help principal provide the instructional materials needed by their students at all time. To get to the core of this inquiry, there are central questions which must serve as guides in determining the direction and focus of our research. With this in view, the study is aimed at addressing the following questions; 1. How does the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning influence cognitive performance of secondary school students? 2. How does the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning influence effective performance of secondary school students? 3. How does the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning influence psychomotor performance of secondary school students? 4. How does the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning influence teachers classroom performance? Purpose of the study Generally, the purpose of this study is to Examine the factors affecting the use of instructional materials in classroom teachings in Jalingo LGA of Taraba state specifically, this study tries to find out the following : 1. Impact of instructional materials on students cognitive performance in schools. 2. Impact of instructional materials on students affective performance in schools. 3. Impact of instructional materials on students psychomotor performance in schools. 4. Impact of instructional materials on the teacher’s classroom performance. Significance of the Study This study will have much significance on the following people. First and foremost, the findings of the study will be of much significance to students, researchers and teachers in secondary schools. This is so because the report of the study will serve as a good reference document to this group of learners when conducting a research on the impact of instructional materials on teaching. Again, the study has much significance on the government in Nigeria. This is so because, it will serve as a source of information to the government that the non-provision of instructional materials to teaching provides basis for the falling standard of learning in the country. Furthermore, the study will be significant to parents, this is so because when conducting parents-teachers meeting, such an issue might be raised and this will serve as a good reference document in providing solutions. Scope of the study The study focused on the impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning in secondary schools in Jalingo Educational Zone of Taraba State. DEFINITION OF TERMS Roles: The roles adopted by the teacher when teaching a particular subjects. Instruction: Utility used to impact knowledge or that enable teachers to teach people something better. Materials: Things that the teacher used to facilitate or aid teaching. Pupils: The participant during teaching and learning process. Academic: That are involved with the teaching and learning process or with education, especially in school. Performance: The process of accessing the pupils or students academic performance through the process of asking the pupils questions through continuous assessment and examination. Teaching Method: The teaching method adopted by the teacher as the most efficient means of achieving his teaching objectives. Subject: Both the teachers and pupils who participated in the completion of research questionnaires.
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