THE PROBLEMS OF DEFORESTATION: A CASE STUDY OF OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE ABSTRACT This project was designed to ascertain the problems and solution of deforestation and some remedial measures of deforestation in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. The study is of importance in that it will enlighten the leaders, farmers, loggers, saw millers, firewood collectors, and the public of our obligation of the forest. It will also aid government and forestry officer on how to protect our forest. This project work will help one to identify the causes of deforestation and the problems created by deforestation in our farmland and also proffer solutions to the problems. The research instrument used was the questionnaires while the data analysis involved the use of the research questions. TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE Introduction Background to the study Statement of the problem Objective of the study Research questions Significance of study Scope and limitation of the study Definition of terms CHAPTER TWO Literature review CHAPTER THREE Methodology Population Sampled sampling techniques Research instrument Method of data collection Method of data analysis CHAPTER FOUR Data presentation and analysis Discussion of results CHAPTER FIVE Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation Summary Conclusion Recommendation REFERENCES QUESTIONNAIRES CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The year 2011 is ‘The International Year of Forests’. This designation has generated momentum bringing greater attention to the forests worldwide. Forests cover almost a third of the earth’s land surface providing many environmental benefits including a major role in the hydrologic cycle, soil conservation, prevention of climate change and preservation of biodiversity (Sheron, 2011). Forest resources can provide long-term national economic benefits. For example, at least 145 countries of the world are currently involved in wood production (Anon, 2010). Sufficient evidence is available that the whole world is facing an environmental crisis on account of heavy deforestation. For years remorseless destruction of forests has been going on and we have not been able to comprehend the dimension until recently. Nobody knows exactly how much of the world’s rainforests have already been destroyed and continue to be razed each year. Data is often imprecise and subject to differing interpretations. Only 2% of China’s forests remain intaft, and only 0.1 percent of these surviving forests and properly protected. The rest are threatened by plantations, in Hainan and Yunnan, for example indigenous trees are felled to make way for fast growing ecouptus plantations, which are used to make paper pulp, unfortunately through they both contain trees plantation and ancient forests are not the same in terms of topology. Ancient forests are crucial to biodiversity and provide habitats for many native species of animals and plants. They also store millennium North of carbon, which is released as carbon dioxide (a green house gas) when the trees are logged. Logging alone, much of it illegal accounts for the less of more than 32 million acres of our planets natural forests every year, according to the nature conservancy. Not all deforestations is intentional. Some deforestation may be driven by a combination of natural processes and human interests. Wildfire burn large sections of forest every year, for example and although fire is a natural part to the forest life cycle, subsequent overgrazing by livestock of wildlife after a fire can prevent the growth of young trees. Forests still cover about 30 percent of the earth’s surface, but each year about 13 million hectares of forest (approximately 78,000 square miles) – an area roughly equivalent to the state of Nebraska, or four times the size of Costa Rica are converted to agricultural land or cleared for other purposes. Of that figure, approximately 6 million hectares (about 23,000 square miles) is primary forest, which is defined in the 2005 global forest resources assessment as forests of native species where there are no clearly visible indication of human activities and where the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed. However, it is obviously that the area of tropical rain forest is diminishing and the rate of tropical rain forest increased environment destructions escalation worldwide, despite increased environment activities and awareness our forest in Nigeria is gradually diminishing at 3.3 percent every year. 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The indiscriminate felling of trees in our forest and the attitude of the people in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State towards our forest has necessitated a massive scale and the people seem to be unaware of its consequences. This study therefore is geared towards finding solutions to some of the problems of deforestation. This study intends to find out the following problems; Do deforestation lead to flooding What are the causes of deforestation in Ovia North Local Government Area, Edo State? 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Does deforestation lead to climate change 2. Does overgrazing lead to deforestation? Does expansion of farmland lead to deforestation? Does fire outbreak lead to deforestation? 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The aims of the study are; To identify the causes of deforestation in Ovia North East Local Government Area. To assess the attitude of people of Ovia North East Local Government Area towards the existing forest. To identify the problems created by deforestation in Ovia North East Local Government Area. To assess the efforts made by the government to reduce the problems of deforestation. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The fact that our forest is one of the beauties of nature and an effect means of controlling erosion, man has in either consciously or unconsciously and indiscriminately too. If no efforts are made to guard this, the younger generation may find it very difficult to know what a natural forest look like. They may also be denied of good forest produce for their economic needs and uses. Hence the effort being made by the government in preserving and consolidating the forest in form forest resources is highly impressive. The study is of importance in that it will enlighten the leaders and the public of our obligation of the forest. To point out the importance of forest to guide against erosion. It will also aid government and forestry officials on how to protect our forest. 1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study is set out to determine the causes and effect of deforestation in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. The study is targeted at collecting data from farmers, loggers, hunters, saw millers, timber contractors in the local government area of the study. DEFINITION OF TERMS Deforestation: Is a process whereby tresses are fell and used for domestic purpose without replacement. Deforestation is also when humans remove or clear large area of forest land and related ecosystems for non-forest use. These include clearing for farming purposes, ranching and urban use. In these cases, trees are never replanted. Urbanization: is the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban in nature. Industrialization: This is the process which society or country (or world) transforms itself from a primary agricultural society into a base. Infrastructure: is the basic physical and organizational structure needed for the generation of society or enterprise such as building road, power supplies etc.
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