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SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY OF RHYCHOPHORUS PHOENICS LARVA IN EDO/DELTA

(Agriculture)

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY OF RHYCHOPHORUS PHOENICS LARVA IN EDO/DELTA

ABSTRACT

The study was embarked upon to investigate the socio-economic indices of producers (farmers), processors, marketers and consumers of Rhynchophorus Phoenicis (Edible worm) in some selected communities in Edo and Delta State. The study was the descriptive survey type of research design. The main instrument used for data collection in the study was the focus group discussion and the research questionnaire Analysis of data collected revealed that Rhynchophorus Phoenicis was highly accepted and consumed as a delicacy and as a substitute for fish and meat in their diets. Quite a number of people are involved in its farming, processing and marketing as a means of livelihood or the main source of income. It was also revealed that, its farming and marketing is more lucrative than my similar consumables like pork meat and suya. The farmers limits include basic edible worm production, preservation and processing techniques and to the consumers, the high cost of processed edible worm. Based on the findings, it was recommended that enabling policies and programmes be initiated and implemented to attract new comers into its farming in this era of high rate of unemployment in the country.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter One – Introduction

Socio-economic study of Rhynochophorus Phoneninics

Scope of the study

Justification of the study

Objectives of the study

Chapter Two – Review of Related Literature

Introduction

Geographical location

Common names of edible worm

Morphology

Location and isolation

Rhynochophorus Phoneninics larve supply chain

Economic value of Rhynochophorus Phoneninics larva

Rhynochophorus Phoneninics sustainability

Processing of Rhynochophorus Phoneninics larvae

Drying

Roasting

Boiling

Factors affecting the quality/utilization of Rhynochophorus Phoneninics

Poor handling

Poor preservative measures

Unsanitary conditions

Poor processing techniques

Solutions to the above problems

Rhynochophorus Phoneninics as a source of nutrients

Insects as a multiplier of nutrients

Chapter Three – Materials and Methods

Study area

Population

Issues for focus group discussion

Field survey

Statistical package

Supply chain

Flow chart of edible worm

Chapter Four – Data Presentation and Analysis  

Presentation, analysis and discussion of results

Focus group discussion results

Chapter Five – Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

Appendix

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Common names of edible worm among different ethnic groups

Table 2.2 Proximate composition of Rhynchophorus Phoenicis

Table 2.3 fatty acid composition of Rhynchophorus Phoenicis

Table 2.4 reported oil value for aquatic sources

Table 2.5 reported oil value for legumes

Table 2.6 Amino acid composition

Table 2.7 Mineral composition of Rhynchophorus Phoenicis

Table 4.10 Sex of respondents

Table 4.11 Age brackets of respondents (Harvesters)

Table 4.12 Marital status of respondents (Harvesters)

Table 4.13 Educational level of respondents

Table 4.14 years in edible worm farming

Table 4.15 Edible worm processing

Table 4.16 level of acceptance of edible worm

Table 4.17 Economic contribution of edible worm

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 1 Supply chain of edible worm

Figure 2 bar chart showing sex of respondents

Figure 3 bar chart showing sex of processors/marketers

Figure 4 bar chart show sex of consumers

Figure 5 Age of harvesters

Figure 6 Age of processors/marketers

Figure 7 Age of consumers

Figure 8 Marital status of respondents (Harvesters)

Figure 9 Marital status of consumers

Figure 10 Educational level of respondents

Figure 11 Number of years in edible worm farming

Figure 12 Number of years in edible worm

Figure 13 Method of processing

Figure 14 Level of acceptance of edible worm

Figure 15 Food value of edible worm

Figure 16 consumers of edible worm

Figure 17, 18, 19 Economic value of edible worm

Figure 20 Income generated from sale of edible worm

LIST OF PLATES

Plate 1 Raphia palm

Plant 2 Findings/Harvesting of edible worm

Plate 3 Method of harvesting edible worm

Plate 4 Edible worm

Plate 5 Boiled edible worm

Plate 6 Processing of edible worm

Plate 7 Processing of edible worm

Plate 8 Processing of edible worm

Plate 9 Sale of edible worm

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY OF RHYNCHOPHORUS PHOENICIS (EDIBLE WORM)

Rhynchophorus Phoenicis larva is a maggot stage of the African palm weevil (Rhynchophorus Phoenicis) it is the second stage of the common complete metamorphosis of the life cycle of the African weevil. It belongs to the group of insects. Insects, generally has played a well known role in the diet of both human and animals nutrition from the inception of life on earth (Defoliant, 1992 and Aiyesami, 1999).

 

Some important group of insects includes grasshoppers, caterpillars, beetle, beetle grubs (such as meal worms), termites, bees, ant larvae and pulpae others include cicades and a variety of aquatic insects, crickets (Gordon et al, 1998). Evidence has been found analyzing coprolites from caves ion USA and Mexico. Coprolites in caves in the Ozark Mountains were found to contain ants, beetle larvae, lice, ticks, and mites (Way, et. al., 2004). This is not unexpected, and there are some deep evolutionary precursors.

 

Insectory also features in various degrees amongst primates, such as marmosets and tamaims, and indeed there is some suggestion that the earliest primates were nocturnal, harbored insectivores (Weiss and Mann, 1985). To most extent Apes are to a greater or lesser extent, insectivorous (Tutin, Carolene, et al 1992; McGrew, 1992, and Coodell, 1986).

 

Human insect-eating is known in cultures in different parts of the world, such as North, Central and South America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Australia and New Zealand. Over 100 insects are known to be eaten in 80% of the worlds nation (Domian, 2011).

 

However, in some societies, insect eating is uncommon or even seen as a taboo (Weiss and Mann, 1985; Mcelroy and Townsend, 1989 and Gordon, George, 1998). Today, insect eating is rare in the developed world. But insects remain a popular food in many developing regions of Latin America, Africa, Asia and Oceania’s countries.

 

Rhynochophorous phoenicis larva has been scientifically classified under the kingdom – animals, phylum-arthropoda, class-insecta, order-coleoptera, family-curculiondae, members of the class insect are important sources of food/protein to many.  Rhynochophorous phoenicis larva are major pest of oil palm, Raphia palm, coconut palms, ornamental palm and even sugar cane (Vidyasagar, et al, 2001). It is popularly called or known as edible worm or a large insect larva gotten from palms. It is fleshy, grub-like and usually measure over 3.5cm in length and width 2.0cm (Citialli and Sherley, 2004).     

 

The insect cycle from egg to adult cover 60 days of which 26 days are spent as larva. They are found in wide geographical locations (Kaishoen and Lean, 1981). Rhynochophorous phoenicis larva are cherished as food among the people and communities in Nigeria where they are produced especially the southern area of Nigeria that are climatically friendly. It is usually seen hawked along major roads and markets in Edo, Delta, Ondo and even as far as Lagos (Ekrakene and Igeleke, 2007).

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is primarily on the socio-economic study of the people involved in the production, processing and marketing of edible worm.

 

In view of the wide production and consumption of this larva in Edo/Delta States, the study is limited to high production/processing areas of Ologbo town (Oredo Local Government Area) in Edo State and Mosogar  town (Ethiope West in Delta State).

 

In areas of consumption, study is going to be in Benin City and Warri in Delta State.

JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

Rhynochophorous phoenicis larva is fast assuming greater significance in the diet of most city dwellers as a delicacy with potential huge financial benefits to rural dwellers, therefore, there is the need to examine closely the various processes involved in the production, processing, preservation, storage and marketing. This will be of immense benefit to edible worm producers, marketers, consumers, as well as the national economy. 

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of this study is to determine;

  • The socio-economic status of edible worm processor, marketers and consumers.
  • The methods of production, processing and preservation of edible worm.
  •  The level of acceptance of edible worm as food in the study area.
  • To determine the economic contribution of edible worm to the people.
 

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