(Business Administration and Management)




The study examined the causes of job dissatisfaction among workers, with a special reference/study of civil servant in Edo State the researcher used both primary and secondary data drawn through random sampling technique from establishment in Edo State Ministry of Education, Health, Justice and transport using a developed questionnaire title “factors responsible for job dissatisfaction”. The study established that civil servant in Edo State are dissatisfied with their job it identified some factors responsible, its consequences and suggested possible solutions. Some of the factors discover to be responsible for job dissatisfaction are irregular payment of salary, lack of career growth opportunity, underpay, poor working condition/environment, delayed promotion, lack of reward for loyalty poor labour and employers relationship, non-payment of salary arrears, selective punishment, non-implementation of health insurance scheme, stoppage of motorbike as means of transportation fear of retirement experience, monotony, ineffective supervision, poor internal communication, rising cost of living, shrinking benefits and lack of proper channel for employee to present their grievances, the Edo State Civil Service lack motivational strategies, like sponsorship for training and development programme for employee granting of housing and car loans are poorly implemented. The researcher posit that the moral and initiatives of the worker is dampened the improper implementation of these motivational strategies which may not at all times be disconnected from politics of favoritism and nepotism. The resultant effect of the subject matter are continued strike by workers called by labour unions tiredness, low morale, exit absenteeism increased complaints, psychological disengagement, low levels of involvement and organizational commitment, poor performance and illness. The researcher therefore suggested that government and other employer of labour should be able to help employees see that the organization can help them satisfy their need and utilized their potentials to contribute to the achievement of the civil service by providing workers with the enabling working condition/environment prompt payment of salary, promotion guarantee retirement benefit and programme, also to endeavour to integrate goals of the civil service with those of its employees and continue to adopt the supportive management technique.


1.1    Introduction

        The discussion of job dissatisfaction is largely generated from the theories proposed by Maslow which is known as “the needs theory” and Herzberg’s “two factor theory or hygiene theory”.

        Job dissatisfaction has received considerable attention from human resources professionals organizational psychologist and sociologist, they argue that this concept related to productivity, organizational commitment, attendance at work participation and turnover. 

        This concept are assumed critical for the organizations to manage since they also likely affect the productivity as well as effectiveness of either the employee are the transition performance, since employee are individuals who are unique, they are different from one another, their job satisfaction is affected differently by among others, their age, sex, education and their personal differences.

        This is proved by Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman (1959) who argue that in order to boost the productivity of employee in particular and organization in general, it is important to increase the effectiveness of employee at work, so then the employee will have positive attitude towards their job.

        Furthermore, in support of the opinion of Herzberg et al. Stone (1998) he viewed that the attitudes of employee towards their job and life have a relationship on the grade of job satisfaction they have.

        Thus a clear picture of what job dissatisfaction is will be essentially lead us to identical comprehension of the subject matter. Job dissatisfaction is largely related to the workers feelings that is why Stone (1998) posit “job satisfaction or dissatisfaction reflects an employee’s feelings about various aspect of the job.

        Dissatisfaction, discontent, displeasure imply a sense of dislike for or unhappiness in one’s surroundings dissatisfaction results from what falls short of one’s wishes or expectations.

        Civil service arrangements have emerge as important institution which interfaces between the state and its citizens. Ozged (2010) “suggested that public service employment has been growing about four (4) times as fast in developing countries as in developed countries”. In recent time many government have realized the importance of services to their citizens. Thus, government in different parts of the world have initiated large scale reform in their civil service to greater efficiency, effectiveness and responsiveness (Degraff, 2002).

        Despite effort of government toward improving the welfare of workers in the public service.


1.2    Background of the Study

        Several models have been developed for measuring individual motivation/dissatisfaction, Herzberg two-factor theory was particularly developed to measure what motivates workers at work, Nelso and Quick (2003) contend that a combination of motivation and hygiene factors could be used in measuring motivation/dissatisfaction and that a job high in motivation and hygiene factors leads to high motivation and few complaints among employees.

        Herzberg in his work empirically identified satisfaction/ no satisfaction factor and dissatisfaction/no dissatisfaction factors, provides hygiene and conducive working environment or non-hygienic and non-conducive working environment which could either eliminate or encourage workers complaints, hygiene when absent always dissatisfied workers.

        The Nigerian worker come to the job with varied expectations, like opportunity for advancement, high/regular payment of salary, social status, challenge and adventure, experience has shown that these workers are often frustrated and disappointed since the opportunity to achieve the above expectations.

        The government of Nigeria though her wage commission has over the years review the minimum wage of workers with the aim of ensuring that the wage could take care of their  needs in line with the economic situation.

        However, there is indication that workers in the civil service are dissatisfied with the manifestation of industrial conflicts, but the most obvious being strike actions, among the civil  service, this conflict originated in the fact that the workers put their powers at the disposal of the government/employer tries some element of exploitation connected with the lack of employer expectations regarding the health and living conditions of the employee, this has cause the worker to hill dissatisfaction with the complaint that injustice have been committed against them by the employer.      

1.3    Statement of the Problem

        The main purpose of any individual employee is to get the best of reward and other achievement from been an employee anything short of this will be against his/her wish.

        Job dissatisfaction is so prevalent that it encompasses a wide range of age groups and income brackets approximately ¼ of civil servant are satisfied while the other 3.4 three quarter is not in recent years overall satisfaction rate have sharply declined with about 40-50 percent of workers saying they will change their line of work if there is a better opportunity.

1.4    Research Questions 

        The research will be answering the following research questions;

  1. Are civil servant really dissatisfied?
  2. What are the level of their job dissatisfaction?
  3. What are the factors that are
  4. What is required to reduced job dissatisfaction among civil servant in Edo State and beyond.

1.5    Objectives of the Study

        The research is aimed at accessing the Ed State Civil Servant in order to ascertain the level of job dissatisfaction and the factors that is responsible for their job dissatisfaction to be able to draw conclusions and make recommendations.

1.6    Significance of the Study

        The study is an effort in the direction of providing the academic world with an authentic, exhaustive and comprehensive work on the subject. In order to remove all related misgivings that civil servant are satisfied with their job, and to make people aware of the actual state of affairs at as this time. This work will fill the gap and serve as an authentic source of information for all scholars academic and the general readers.  

1.7    Statement of Hypothesis

        The research work is based n the following hypothesis;

  1. Ho: There is a significant level of job dissatisfaction among workers in Edo State.
  3. Ho: Inability to meet expectation from work can be a reason for workers dissatisfaction.

1.8    Justification of the Study

        There has been series of workers protest, strikes, court litigation against the State Government by the state civil servant, this is a result of the workers complain of not satisfied with their job, this study is therefore aimed at finding a course of workers dissatisfaction and to suggest ways of resolving the recurrence of industrial conflicts by making recommendations to both the employer and employee, will be useful to students, teachers as source of information for learning and further research work, it will also be of assistance to government in making policy on workers welfare.

1.9    Definition of Terms

        In the cause of this work some of the terms that where use are;

Civil Servant: Is a designation given to government employment for which a person qualifies on the basis of merit rather than political patronage or personal favour or a person in the public sector employed for a government department or agency.

Parastatal: Organization or industry having some political authority and serving the state indirectly.

Ministry: Government department that has a particular area of responsibility.

Worker: A person who is employed to do physical work rather than organizing things or managing people.

Employer: A person or company that pays people to work for them.

Employee: A person who is paid to work.

NLC: Nigerian Labour Congress

Retire: A person who has stopped working because of age or has put up in service the maximum number of years in service.      

Gratuity: Money that is given to employee when they retire from service.

Pension: Is amount of money being paid to retiree monthly after retirement.

Promotion: A move to a more important job or rank in an organization.

Intrinsic: Coming from a true and real nature, of personal internal desire.

Extrinsic: Coming from or existing outside rather than within a person.


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