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PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF WATER EXTRACT OF PUMPKIN LEAVES

(Chemistry)

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF WATER EXTRACT OF PUMPKIN LEAVES

ABSTRACT

The research investigated the extract and phytochemical screening of (pumpkin leaves). The plant leaves were collected dried grinded and extracted using water by a cold extraction (maceration) method. The filtrated was concentrated and their subjected to phytochemical screening using standard methods. The result indicated the produce of sapannis, flavoncids, phenolic, glycosides and terpeniods while eugeuds and steroids were absent. The presence of these bioactive components especially phenolics and alkaloids suggest that the plant has rich medicinal constituents and is thus recommended to be included in man’s and medicinal formulations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE                                                                     

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Taxonomy/classification

1.2.1 English names and local names

1.2.2 Description

1.2.3 Cultivation

1.3 Medicinal importance

1.3 Nutritional benefits

1.3.1 Chemical constituents

1.3.2 Bioactive constituents

1.3.3 Alkaliods

1.3.4 Glyiosides

1.3.5 Flavanoids

1.4 Eugenols

1.4.1 Saponins

1.4.2 Phenolics

1.4.3 Tannins

1.4.4 Terpenes

1.4.5 Steroids

1.5 Extraction/types

1.6 Types of Telfairia Occidentalis

1.7 Aim

1.8 Specific objectives

CHAPTER TWO                                                           

2.1 Plants sample

2.2 Equipments/apparatus

2.3 Reagents used

2.4 Collection of plants

2.5 Extract

2.6 Phytochemical screening

CHAPTER THREE                                                                 

3.0 Discussion and results

3.1 Percentage yield 

3.2 Phytochemical screening results

3.3 Discussion

CHAPTER FOUR                                                

4.0 Conclusion and recommendation

4.1 Conclusion

4.2 Recommendation

REFERENCES                                                    

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Telfairia occidentalis is widely cultivated for its palatable and nutritious leaves. The leaves when prepared with other tropical vegetables have high value. Its protein content (21%) is higher than those of other commonly used leafy vegetables. The leaves are rich in vitamins and minerals such as Ca, p, fe etc. the seed is also eaten as food. The oil obtained from the seed is used in cooking. There are claims that the possesses some medicinal values.

        Telfairia occidentalis is a tropical vine grown in West Africa as a leaf vegetable and for its edible seeds, common names for the pant include fluted gourd fluted pumpkin, and Ugu. T. occidentalis is a member of the curcarbitacee family and is indigenous to Southern Nigeria. The fluted gourd grows in many nations of West Africa, but is mainly cultivated in Nigeria, used primarily in soups and herbal medicines. Although the fruit is inedible, the seeds produced by the gourd are high protein and fat, and can therefore, contribute to a well-balanced diet. The plant is a drough-tolerant, dioecious perennial that is usually grown trellised.

        T. occidentalis is traditionally used by an estimated 30-35 million people indigenous people in Nigeria, including the Efik, Ibibio and Urhobo; however, it was predominantly used by the Igbo tribe, who continue to cultivate the gourd for food sources and traditional medicines. A recurring subject in the Igbo folklore, the fluted gourde is noted to have healing properties and used as a blood tonic, to be administered to the weak or ill. It is endemic to southern Nigerian, and was an assest to international food trades of the Igbo tribe Akoroda. This study seeks to determine the phyto-chemical constituents present in the H20 and ethanol extract

1.1 TAXONOMY/CLASSIFICATION

          Integrated Taxonomy Information system gave the taxomic hierarchy of Telfairia occidentalis as follows;

KINGDOM (Plantea-plantes, planta, vegetal, plants)

SUB KINGDOM (Viridae plantae-green plants),

INFRA KINGDOM (Streptophyta-land plants),

DIVISION (Tracheophyta – vascular plants, tracheophytes),

SUB DIVISION (Spermatophytina- spermatophytes, seed plants, pharierogames)

INFRA DIVISION         (Angrospermae-flowering plants, angiosperms, plantas com flor, angiosperma, plantes a fleurs, angiosperms, plantes a fruits)

CLASS                       (magnoliopsida)

SUPER ORDER             (Rosanae)

ORDER                       (Cucurbitales)

FAMILY                      (cucurbitaceae-gourds, squashes, Citrovilles, gourdles)

GENUS                       (Telfairia Hook)

SPECIES                    (Telfairia Occidentalis Hook f-oysternur)

TAXONOMIC serial No: 505897

1.2 ENGLISH NAMES AND LOCAL NAMES

          Telfairia Occidentalis is popularly known in different languages and countries as follows; fluteds pumpkins, oysternut, oil nut, fluted gourd and telfairia nut (English); Costillada (Spanish); Krobonko (Ghana); Oroko, Pondokoko and Gonugbe (Siera Leone); Ugwu (Igbo-Nigeria), Aworoko Eweroko (Yoruba-nigeria) and Ikong (Efik/Ibibio-Nigeria).

 

 

1.2.1 DESCRIPTION

        Felfairia Occidentalis is a large perennial plant which climbs by means of bifid and tendrils which are usually coiled. The stems have five ridges often covered with multi-cellular hairs, especially when young. The leaves of the plant are compound, usually 3-5 foliate, with blades and petioles also covered with multicular hairs. The fruits are marked by 10 conspicuous longitudinal ridges and are among t6he largest known (16-50cm length, 9cm diameter). The seeds which are embedded with a brigh-yellow fibrous endocarp are large, non endospermic and usually red in colour.

1.2.2 CULTIVATION

          T. occidentalis is typically grown vertically on trestle-like structures; however, it can be allowed to spread flat on a field, a beneficial outcome of growing the gourd flats is the suppression of weeds, especially when intercropped with a tall, upright plant such as maize. The growing period begins in April or May when seed are planted; the first leaves and shooks can be harvested after a month and can be collected every 2-4 weeks thereafter. Seed are planted directly in the soil, typically in groups of three to increase output in a case of a failed germination. Fruit is typically harvested between October and December. The seeds are subsequently collected and dried; a portion of them are consumed, while the reminders are stored for the following planting season. Although dependent upon soil type, the fluted gourd is able to ratoon and subsequently produce may flushes of fruits over long period. It is able to ratoon with the highest ndegree of success in well drained soil. It is propagated using the seeds, its seed is housed in another greater covering or hard shell which protects if from harm. It survives drought and retains its life in the root even after many years. It is a creeping plant and grows well if staked with bamboo sticks.

1.2.3 MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE

        Telfairia Occidentalis is an important staple vegetable grown in Nigeria. The plant produces luxuriant edible green leaves, which are rich iron and vitamins sterms of the plants have branching, long twisting tencdrils. Recent studies have shown that Telfairia Occidentalis leaf is rich in minerals (such as iron, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium), antioxidants, vitamins (such as thiamic, riboflauin, nicotinamide and ascorbic acid, phytochemicals such as phenols. The leaves contain essential oils vitamins; the young leaves sliced and mixed with coconut water and salt are stored in a bottle and used for the treatment of convulsion in ettno medicine. The leaf extract is usedful in the management of cholestewlemia, liver problems and impaired defense immune-systems. The amino acid profile of T. occidentalis has been shown to be very rich and includes alanine, aspartate, leucine, arginne. Serine, threonine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine and isolenaine.

        The following are some medicinal valves of T. occidentalis

  1. It is used to lower diabetes and heart diseases risks such as hypertension.
  2. It has great antioxidant capacities to help in restoring damaged cells and skins.
  3. It helps to protects our heart and liver from harmful toxin and painkillers like Paracetamols.
  4. It contain lots of phytonutrients which is tough to reduce the risks of beast and stomach cancers.       
  5. It also reduced blood sugar levels.
  6. It may be useful in therapy for hypercholesterolemia though reducing oxidative stress and cholesterol levels.

1.3 NUTRITIONAL BENEFITS

        This type of dark green leafy vegetable is so versatile and can be recognized as a panacea to cure some of our hunger as well as illness if only we can look into its nutritional benefits; which are as follows;

  1. It contains a healthy amount of vitamins.
  2. It helps to prevent convulsion.
  3. It helps to lower cholesterol.
  4. It helps to boost fertility.
  5. It is rich in iron and can be used to cure anarmia.
  6. It helps to increase blood volume.
  7. It has high protein content.
  8. It is also an excellent source of many natural poly-phenolic falvoniod compounds such as a B, minerals like copper, calcium, potassium and phosphorus.

1.3.1 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

        The proximate chemical composition of fluted pumpkin leaf extract was given as; crude protein (21.31), crude fibre (6.41), ether extract (50.50), ash (10.92), nitrogen free extracts (55.56), metabolization energy (3121.00iccal kg) gross energy (4420.00kcal/kg), Ca (o.67), P(0.40), K (0.15), N (3.41), Mg (0.43), Na(0.02), Zn(7.50) Mg/100g), phytate (510.51mg/100g), Tannin (0.184mg/100g), Oxalate (0.0034mg/100g). the proportions of the various minerals vary with the age of the plant. Anti-nutrient composition of the young stems and leaves of the plant was found to be higher than that found in the older leaves and stems.

        The high content of Fe in the young tender fluted pumpkin leaves was given as the basis for which the leaf extract is administered traditionally as blood tonic in treatment of anemia and to convalescing patients. The crude fibre content of 20.17 I 0.12% in the leaves of Telfairia Occidentalis indicated that the leaves of this plant are good sources of dietary fibres. Higher carbohydrates of 39.64% leads to a corresponding increase of energy valve recorded as 290. 16 kcal/100g which further confirmed that his plant leaves could serve as a good source of energy, the leaves are good sources of Mg and Zn which are essential in human and animal nutrition. Total amino acid is T. occidentalis was 455.3mg/g with total essential amino acid of 256.1mg/g or 56.3%, showing the plant proteins to be high in essential amino acid. Agueous extract of the leaf contains 5.07mg/100mg and 40 mg/100ml of vitamins E and C, respectively.

1.3.2 BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS IN MEDICINAC PLANTS

        Telfairia occidentalis has been reported to possess antioxidant properly. The aqueous extract has a higher total phenol, reducing power and free radical scavenging ability (12.2%, 1.9 007 and 92%, respectively( than the ethanolie extract which had total phenol, reducing power free radical scavenging ability of 5.5%, 1.500700 and 25% respectively. The free solution phyplenols had higher antioxidant activity as typified by their higher reducing power and free redical scavenging ability than the bound polyphenols. Telfairia occidentalis leaf contained a significantly high amount of vitamin C, total flavoniods and phenolics. The leaf inhibited more free radical. The hexane fraction had the highest falvoniod content and free scavenging activity comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant BHT. The ability for the leaf of Telfairia accidentalis to reduce iron (111) to iron (11) was also reported. The antioxidant property of Telfairia occidentalis is attributed to the high content of polyphenols, especially flavoniod.

        Many human diseases are caused by oxidative stress which is usually initiated by free radicals such as superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide. These free radicals react with macromolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids thereby damaging them. The consequences of it is damage are diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, atheroscptensis, cancer, mgocardinal infarction, arthritis, anemia, asthma, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases. Endogenous antixodants such as super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, ascorbie acid and tocopherol protect the body against the damaging effect of free radicals. But natural products of plant origin have been found to exhibit strong antioxidant components such as flavonoids phenols, flavonols, protanthoeyanins, vitamins c, carotenoids and lycopene, sosme of which are present in T. occidentalis, the antioxidant properly of Telfairia occidentalis which has been well documented therefore makes the plant medicinally useful. Consumption of the plant has the potential of protecting the consumer from oxidative stress and its attendant health implications.

1.3.3 ALKALOIDS

          Alkaloids are nitrogenous organic substance existing in combination with organic acid in great variety of plants and to which many drugs own their medicinal properties. A member of a large group of chemicals that are made by plant and have nitrogen in than many alkaloids possess potent pharmacologic effect. The alkaloids include cocaine, nicotine, strychnine, caffeine, morphine, pilocarpine, atropine, methamphetamine, mescaline, ephedrine and tryptamine.

        Any of a number of medicinally active compounds produces by plants; alkaloids are often active in small amounts and toxic in large amounts, well known alkaloids produced by plants include caffeine, codeine, morphine, nicotine, quinine and strychnine.

1.3.4 GLYCOSIDES

        Many glycosides occur in plants, often as flower and fruits pigments; for example anthocyanins various medicines, condiments and dycs from plants occurs as glycosides, of great valve are the heart-stimulating glycosides of digitalis and several antibiotics are glycosides (e.g. streptomycin) saponins, face tension of water, saponin solution have been used as cleansing agents.

1.3.5 FLAVONOIDS

        Flavonoids are a large family of compounds synthesized byb plants that have a common chemical structure. Flavoniods may be further divided into subclasses. In plant systems, flavonoids help if combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators for pharmaceutical purposes cost effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. Falvoniode consist of a large group of polyphenolic compounds having a benzo pyrone structure and are ubiquitously present in plants they are synthesized by phenylpropaniod pathway, flavonoids are hypdroxyglated phenolic substances and are known to be synthesized by plants in response to microbial infections. Their activities are structure dependent flavoniods also act as secondary antioxidant defense system in plant tissues exposed in different abiotic and biotic stresses, flavonoids are located in the nucleus of mesophil cell and within centres of Ros generation. They also regulate growth factors in plant such as duxin.

1.4 EUGENOLS

        Eugenols is a chemical which is found in many plants, herbs and spices but clove is the best natural source of this powerful antioxidant. However, it is a double edge sword since it can have potentially dangerous repercussions, if consumed in higher amount, very small amount are required, in order to reap the benefits and avoid side effects. It possess anti-microbial, anti-bacteria and anti-fungal properties which make it very useful in killing parasites which could damage the heart, lungs or the kidneys.

 

1.4.1 SAPONINS

        Saponins are found in many plants and in the animal kingdom saponins have a soapy character due to their surfactant properties saponins have hemolytic, expectoraative, anti-flammatory and immune-stimulating activity. Beyonth that, saponins demonstrate antimicrobial properties particularly against fungi and additionally against bacteria and protozoa.

1.4.2 PHENOLICS

        Phenolics, phenols or polyphenolics (or polyphend extracts) are chemical compone occur ubiquitously as natural colour pigments responsible for the colour of fruits of plants. Phenoclies in plants are mostly synthesized from phenylantine via the action of phenylatatine ammonia iyase (PAL) they are very important to plants and have multiple functions. The most important role may be in plant defense against pathogens and herbivore predators, and thus are applied in the control of human pathogenic infections (Puupponen-phmia etal, 2008). They are classified into (i) phenolic acid and (ii) flavonoid poly phenolics (flavonones, flavones, xanthones and catechnics) and (iii) non-flavonoid polyphenotic caffic acidi is regarded as the most common of phenolic compounds distributed in plant flora followed by cholorogenie acid known to cause allergic dermatic among humans (Kar, 2007).

        Phenolic essentially represent a host of natural anti-oxidants, used as nutraceuticals, and found in apples, green tea and red wine for their enormous ability to combat cancer and are also though to prevent heart ailments to an appreciable degree and sometimes are anti-inflammatory agents.

1.4.3 TANNINS

        A tannin (also known as vegetable tannin, natural organic tannin or sometimes tannoid, i.e. a type of biomolecule, as opposed to modern synthetic tannin) is an astringent, bitter plant polyphenelic compound that binds to and precipitates proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids, for this reason, they convert animal skin into leather.

        However, the term :tannin: be extension is widely applied to any large polyphenolic compound containing sufficient hydioxyls and others suitable groups (such as carboyls) to form strong complexes with proteins and other macromolecules.

        The tannin compounds are widely distributed in many species of plants where they play a role in protection from predation and perhaps also a pesticide, and in plant growth regulation. Tannins are soluble in water and alcohol and are found in the root, bark, stem and outer layers of plant tissue.

        Tannins have molecular weighs ranging from 500 to over 3,000 (gallic acid esters) and up to 20,000 (proanthocyanidins). Tannins are incompatible with alkalis, gelatin, heavy metals, iron, limewater, metallic salts, strong oxidizing agents and zinc sulfate, since they form complexes and precipitate in aqueous solution.

1.4.4 TERPENES

        Terpenes are among the most widespread and chemically diverse groups of natural products, they are flammable unsaturated hydrocarbons, existing in liquid form commonly found in essential oils resins or oleoresins (firm, 2010). Terpenoids hydrocarbons of plant origin of general formula (C5H8) n and classified as meno-di-tri and sequiterpenoids depending on the number of carbon atoms. Examples of commonly important monterpenes include terpinen-4-0l, thupone, camplor eugenol and menthol.

1.4.5 STEROIDS

        Three new stigmastane type steroid glycosides vernioside, A4, vernonioside B2 and vernonioside B3 as well as the aglycone of A4 were isolated from vernonia amygdalina, a possible medienal plant used by wild chimpanzees vermonioside A4 and it’s a glycone were bitter but others were not. Red coloration indicated the presence of steroids. 

1.5 EXTRACTION/TYPES

        This can be done, the old school way by rubbing the clan leaves in between your palms with the help of a little water and squeezing out the juice from the leaves, you can also use a juicer or blend the leaves with a little water, in a blender and strain out the extract with a cheese elots, coffee strain or a sieve with a fight mesh. The herb were air-dried under shade in the environment for a month and pulverized by a mortar and pestle to a fine powder then it was boiled with a for 5-10minutes and then extract into a beaker through a filter paper.

1.6 TYPES OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS

  • Telfairia batesi
  • Telfairia occidentalis-fluted pumpkin, oyster nut.
  • Telfairiapediata (5yn- T- farieana, fevillea pedata, joliffia Africana-oyeter nut, queens nut, Zanzibar oil vine. The genus was named for Irish naturalist charks Telfairia (1778-1833).
  • Telfairia occidentalis commonly called fluted pumpkin or oyster nut is a common vegetable in Nigeria and other African counties.
  • Telfairia batesil is a specicies which is rare and not cultivated (Minson, 1971).
  • Telfaria pedata (Oyster nut or queen’s nut) is a woody and herbaccous species, dioecious vina which bear squash-liver fruits that contains large oily seeds, it is usually grown as an ornamental plant.

1.7 AIM

        The aim of this study is determine the phytochemical screening of water extract of pumpkin (Telfairia occdentalis)

1.8 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

        The specific objective of this study is to achieve the aims as follows;

  1. Collection, drying and pulversation of pumpkin leaves plants.
  2. Extract of pumpkin leaves using distilled water by maceration method.
  3. Determination of phytochemical presents in extract of the leaves.

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