THE EFFECT OF MOSQUITO ON MAN:
A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED AREAS IN OVIA NORT EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE
The significance and effects of mosquito on man can never be overemphasized. No human being or other primates can live without good health, as the “adage” says that health is wealth. The aim of this study is to find out or reveal the effect of mosquito on man. It is also to create awareness to the society on the danger of mosquito, especially Ovia North East local government area of Edo State.
Four selected villages were used for this study. In each of the village’s four hundred villages of males and females ranges from 20-40 years, and 40 and above were served with questionnaires, which is the basic tool for the study. The finding revealed that most of the localities were not appropriately informed on the effect of mosquito on man.
The effect of these findings was discussed suggestion and preventives or control measures were recommended.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problems
1.3 Purpose of study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Limitations of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
2.1 Classification and general features of mosquitoes
2.2 Aede mosquitoes
2.3 Habits and habitant of mosquitoes
2.4 Life cycle of mosquitoes and its effects
2.5 Life cycle of malaria parasite
2.6 Life cycle of plasmodium
3.1 Research design
3.3 Sampling procedure
3.4 Research instrumentation and administration
3.5 Validity and reliability of instrument
3.6 Method of data collection
3.7 Method of data analysis
Data analysis/interpretation and discussion
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Globally, mosquitoes without questioned the most important of the insects. At present time over 200 million people in over a hundred and subtropical countries of the world live under the threat of mosquito. According to world Health Organization (WHO) it is estimated that mosquito causes or contributes to the deaths of between one and three million people each year, mostly children under five years of age. Generally, in science, the study of insects (Etomology) cannot be competed without the broad heading.
Mosquitos play a very important role in any scientific discipline. It is noticeable, however, that an initiative insight into the nature and life circle of any scientific organism only comes to those who have a sound basic of observation and scientific discipline behind them for one to be successful in study of mosquitoes and its effects on man a special attention has to be paid on the study if its habits and life circle. Since special consideration is given to the environment in which these species of organism dwells, its role and mode of breeding should also be considered as these affect the life span of man.
In view of the above differences and diversity, this work will be limited to the study of mosquitoes and its effects on man. Many of mankind’s idealist enemes are found among the 85,000 species of stagnant and mosquitoes in “older dipteral” south largest of the insects groups. Most members of the order have a single pair of wings, hence the name diptera, meaning two lunged, most of them, just like the mosquitoes also posses tubular mouths which can piece the human skin for nourishing blood. The loss of blood is small, but as the insect is sipping, virus and other pathogens may pass from the insects into the human host. Sickness such as malaria, yellow fever, elephantiasis is transmitted through this ways.
There are about fifty species of the family, culiacdac many them are called Gnats,. They are thin flies with long fragile legs and narrow wings. Only the female how ever pieces the skins of mammals and suck blood the male defer from the female in having long pulps and feather like analenae. In Ovia North East local government in particular and Nigeria in general, there are currently three species of mosquitoes all of which are potential malaria, elephantiasis and yellow fever transmitters. The spotted gnat (Anopheles maculipennis) is an example of the type of mosquitoes the rest with its abdomen raised at an angle and it head in line with the rest of the body. It has spotted wings and one sub-species (athroparus) which breeds in blackish water in coastal district. The common gnat (anlex pipien) is a very abundant mosquitoes near stagnant water and a type which rest with its abdomen parallel with the surface oni which its is resting and it head lowered at an angle. Aedes albopictus is one of the largest and fiercest mosquitoes. It has spotted wings and white ringed legs and body. The females attack man and other mammals literate in building, something and rests in the same position and has a very similar life history to that of a common gnat.
The mosquitoes as a member of the “orde” diptera has no posterior pair of wings but the posterior pair is represented only a pair of small club shaped structures, the halters. These look useless, but this cannot fly without them. A fly with its halters cut off can still beat its wings at the normal frequency and through the normal angle, but it lose control in the air, it a straight course and aliable to fall on its back. These halteres have an important function in the control of flight.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Accurate figures has shown that the mortality (death rate) of human being increases rapidly and again, there is an indication that the breeding rate of certain insects like mosquitoes is increasing geometrically too. T he entomology of insects, mosquitoes to be precise shows that most of the death of human being are caused as a result of the diseases transmitted by these vectors to their hosts. An insight of such diseases transmitted by the vectors are malaria caused by the females anopheles mosquitoes, yellow fever, caused by creoles mosquitoes. The transmission of the diseases I normally through the blood stream which contaminate the pure blood, resulting in acute sickness that are characterized by many symptoms such as sever fever, headache, vomiting, tiredness, dizziness loss of appetite which may finally result to death.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to know the effect of mosquitoes on man. It is believed that in Africa as a whole and in Nigeria in particular, the diseases transmitted by mosquitoes to their host-man contributes immensely to about two third (2/3) of the total death recorded annually. So, it is worthwhile to take proper study of these adverse effects and hence know the panacea to curb the problems by reducing the breeding rate of these vectors (INSECTS). Also, the study is to create awareness of the effects of mosquitoes on man.
Therefore, this research will help us to study properly of our environment and know what causes the high breeding rate of these insects (particularly mosquitoes) and their control or preventives measures.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will provide knowledge on the danger and effect of malaria on human being. It is serves as a reaching text to members of the public, who could want to gain more or have a deeper knowledge, on the effects of mosquitoes on man. It also will serve as awareness to the people of Ovia North East local government area and to encourage non government organizations (NGOs) to participate in campaigning to the people on the danger of mosquitoes to man and its preventive measures.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS OF THE STUDY
1. Can illiteracy about mosquitoes increase the rate of growth of mosquitoes and its effect on individual in a community?
2. Are mosquitoes more than people living in urban areas? As well as rural areas?
3. Can the use of mosquito’s net help to prevent malaria epidemic.
4. Do non government organizations (NGOs) has a role ton play in creasing awareness or campaigning to the rural and urban areas?
5. Do government has a role to play in eradicating mosquitoes as a vector?
6. Does poor environmental sanitation lead to the spread of malaria?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study was carried out within Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State, in the following locations/villages, Okada, Usen, Uhen, and Iginge.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Accedes mosquitoes: These are carried of yellow fevers.
Entomology mosquitoes: These are a branch of science, which deals with the study of mosquitoes.
Culex mosquitoes: These are carriers of elephantiasis and filariasis.
Epidemic disease: These are rapid diseases that can spread among many people.
Hypothesis: An idea or suggestions that are based on known facts and is used as a basis for reasoning or further investigation.
Mosquitoes: Mosquitoes are parasitic organism that suck human blood (female) and spread diseases such as malaria, yellow fever or elephantiasis.
Parasites: parasites are small organism that lives in (endoparasites) or outside cectoparasites) another large organism (the host) from which the parasite obtain food without contributing anything in return. Example mosquitoes, tick and fleas etc.
Swampy area: These are areas of low land along the coast, which is been regularly flooded by the rivers, seas and ocean. It is a region of heavy and frequent.
Vector: These are organism that carries pathogens.
World Health Organization (WHO) These are organ of united nation (UN) which foresee or responsible for health.
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