PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

(Bio-Chemistry)
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII
ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen, damage cells or irritants (Ryan & Majno, 1983). The urgency generated by increased rate of stroke, atherosclerosis attribute due to prolonged use of cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibitors have accelerated anti-inflammatory drug research over the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents continued to dominate research (Ryan & Majno, 1983). Attention increasingly has been directed to natural products. These are often more affordable and available and sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional anti- inflammatory drugs.
 Anti-inflammation was carried out using 12 rats which was divided into three groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 and 2 served as the negative and positive control respectively. Group 3 received 25mg/kg b.w. of the dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of Crateva adansonii showed significance anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard difference used.
 TABLE OF CONTENT
 CHAPTER ONE
 1.1  Introduction
 1.2  Crateva  adansonii  as a plant
1.3  Research  aim  and  objectives
CHAPTER TWO
 LITERATURE REVIEW
 2.0  Definition  of  Inflammation
2.1  Characteristics  of  Inflammation
2.2  Classes  of  Inflammation
2.3  Types  of  Inflammation
2.4  Chemical  mediators  of  Inflammat
2.4.0 Properties of  Mediators
 2.4.1  Histamine
2.4.2 Serotonin (5- Hydroxy  tryptamine
2.4.3  Cytokines
2.4.4  Arachidonic  acid
2.4.5  Platelet  Activating  Factor
2.4.6  Free  Radicals
2.4.6.1  Nitric  Oxide  (NO)
2.4.6.2 Oxygen-derived  free  radicals
2.4.7.0  Complement  system
 2.4.7.1  The clotting system/Coagulation system
2.4.7.2   The  Kinin System
2.4.7.3  The  fibrinolytic  system
2.5.0      Anti-Inflammatory  agents
2.5.1 Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)
2.5.1.0  Mechanism  of  Action  of  NSAI
 2.5.2      Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs
CHAPTER THREE
 MATERIAL AND METHODS
 3.1  Materials
 
3.1.1  Equipment/Apparatus  used
3.1.2  Chemical,  Solvents  and  Reagen
3.1.3  Animals
3.2  Methodology
3.2.1  Collection  and  preparation  of  Pl
3.2.2  Extraction
3.3  Fractionation
3.3.1  Gel  Column  Chromatography
3.4. Identification of Phytochemical groups in the  extract
3.4.1 Preparation of Reagents for phytochemical  analysis
3.4.2 Qualitative phytochemical analysis of  the  Extract
3.5              Thin  Layer  Chromatography
3.6  Anti-inflammatory  activity  test
CHAPTER FOUR
Result
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Appendixes
CHAPTER ONE
 INTRODUCTION AIM AND OBJECTIVES
 Inflammation is one of body’s natur itself. It is also an essential reaction of the body to infection. Too little of an inflammatory response, and the body is unable to repel microbial invasions or heal injuries. Too much of an inflammatory response, and the immune system begins attacking the eventually leading to chronic disease (Sears, 2000).
Anti-Inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. There are obvious clinical markers of inflammation which include pain, redness, fever, swelling and loss of function (Pai et al. 2004). However if inflammation is allowed to continue unchecked it may results in neurodegenerative disease or cancer (Pai et al. 2004). A variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents are available including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids.
  Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID are usually indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammation. NSAIDS work by reducing the production of prostaglandins (Bayness & Marek, 2005). Prostaglandins are chemicals that promote inflammation, pain and fever. The enzymes that produce prostaglandins are phospholipaseA2, PGH2synthase and Cyclooxygenase (Cox). There are two types of COX enzymes, cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). NSAIDS reduce the production of prostaglandin by inhibiting COX enzymes resultant effect is that, therefore, inflammation, pain and fever are reduced. Some herbs and plants possess anti-inflammatory and they include:
 S/No    Common    Botanical    
     Name    Name    
                1    Andiroba oil    Carapa    It is rich in omega-3 fatty acids
          guianensis    that  promote  skin  healing  from
               cuts and may slow growth of skin
               cells in psoriasis and age spots.
               It relieves pain and swelling
     2    Alfalfa    Medicago    It  serves  as  an  oxidant  in  the
          sativa L.    blood stream. They are staple of
               salads and contain nutrient, the
               leaves  hold  the  best  healing
               potential         and    contain
               phytoestrogens    that    could    be
               beneficial    in    menopausal    and
               breast feeding women.         
   3    Aloe Vera Gel    Aloe vera    The leaf juices of the aloe plant
               have    important    medicinal  uses.
               It  stimulates    collagen    synthesis
               and  skin  regeneration  after  a
               burn; it helps heal acne, improve
               the  appearance of  wrinkles  and
               hydrate damaged skin.         
   4    Apple    Malus    Other names include apple cider
          domestica    vinegar, wine vinegar. The best
               of the medicinal compounds are
               contained  in  the  apple  peel.  It
               helps in relieving arthritis, apple
               contains malic and tartaric acids,
               salts    of    potassium,    sodium,
               magnesium and iron.         
Annie’s  Remedy  (Anniesremedy.c
Crateva adansonii belonging to the family Capparacea
and phylum Magnoliophyta is small tree of forest and
savanna woodland, often on river-banks, widely distributed in Nigeria and across Africa. The leaves are applied externally to relieve pain in joint, the fresh juice of leaves is used for the relief of ear-ache, eye infection and anodyne in toothache. Powder of bark is used in rheumatism, itch, epilepsy and asthma (Sivarajan & Balachandran, 1994).
 1.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant.
The flowering tree Crateva adansonii is called the sacred garlic pear and temple plant. The tree is sometimes called the spider tree because the showy flowers bear long, spidery stamens. It is native to Japan, Australia, much of south East Asia and several south pacific Islands. It grows in forest and savanna woodland, often on river-banks from Senegal to N Nigeria, and across Africa to Zaire, Tanganyika and Madagascar. The plants common name is amakarode in Igbo, In Yoruba, it is egun-orun and in Hausa, it is ungududu. The tree attains approximately 15m height. The trunk is irregular, seldom straight, but is worthy of cultivation as an ornamental for its dense masses of white flowers borne at the ends of all the shoots. In the bush, owing to grass burning which it survives and repeated stripping of its leaves, the tree is often stunted. The wood is soft and yellow and strong-smelling when cut. The leaves are however eaten in soups or mixed with cereals. They are boiled and added to mixture called containing a paste of locust beans, Parkia Spp. (Leguminosae Mimisoideae). The Yoruba consumes the leaves as a potherb.
In upper volt they are the ingredient of sauces. To some people the leaves are taken only in time of dearth and they are sold in northern markets. The bark is widely used for stomach-troubles in Nigeria. In Jebel Marra a bark-paste is used as a poultice on swellings.
Crateva adansonii is a decidious plant with three-palmate leaves. The leaves are arranged opposite one another. They are elliptic with entire margins. The flowers are pale green. The plants bloom from March to May. The flowers are arranged in racemes. The fruits are berries. It can withstand temperatures above 1oc and 2oc (Burkill, 1985).
Taxonomy
 Family:        Capparaceae
 Genus:         Crateva
 Species:      Crateva adansonii DC
 Phylum/Division: Magnoliophyta
 Sub division:         Magnoliophytina
 Classes:       Rosopsida
 Sub class:  Dilleniidae
 Super order:         Violanae
 Order:          Capparales
The medicinal effect of Crateva adansonii plant bark is includes general healing, leprosy, stomach troubles. For the leaf, it is used in eye treatments, liver, for leaf; a pain-killer, for roots, dropsy, swellings, edema, gout, veneral diseases. Powder of bark is used in rheumatism,itch, epilepsy and asthma.
 1.3 Research Aim and Objectives Aim:
 To study the anti-inflammatory effect of dichloromethane fraction extracts from Crateva adansonii on rats.
 Objectives:
i)          To  determine  the  anti-inflammatory  effect  of Crateva adansonii extracts in methanol on rats.
ii)        To  determine  the  phytochemicals  present  in Crateva adansonii extract in methanol on rats.

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