ANTILIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF WATER (H20) EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM LEAVES ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS
This study evaluated the antilipidemic activity of water extracts from leaves of Desmodium velutinum on albino wistar rats. The phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, soluble carbohydrates, flavonoids, reducing sugar, steroids, cyanide and terpenoids. The animals were treated with known drugs (atorvastatin 2ml). There were significantly reductions in HDL 13.00 1.41 mg/dl LDL 1.20 0.14 mg/dl and triglyceride 39.00 0.14 mg/dl, compared with water extract of Desmodium velutinum (0.5ml). when administered was found to significantly reduce lipid plasma which was LDL 1.90 0.00mg/dl, triglyceride 50.00 0.00mg/dl and increase HDL 25.00 0.00 mg/dl which is the good cholesterol. The water extract of Desmodium velutinum leaf can possibly normalize the plasma lipid when compared with the group given atorvastatin. The phytochemicals analysis showed that the association between these complexes and compounds and other constituent play an important role in the biological activity of the leaf. This study suggested that the water extract of D.velutinum leaf posses hypolipidemic as well as antilipidemic effect.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities play a major role in the development and progression of coronary artery diseases. Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterols have been identified as independent coronary risk factors (Rodrigue et al., 2010). High level of blood cholesterol is responsible for circulatory system disorder. Increase level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is alarming for cardiovascular diseases and their risk is increased many times (Harman et al., 2011).
In developing countries, the occurrence of heart diseases increases rapidly (Nordestgard et al., 2010). Medical studies show that about 70% of adults over 50 years old suffer atherosclerosis. (Sherien and Azza, 2009). A large number of synthetic hypolipidemic drugs are available in market. Long term use of these drugs cause serious side effects, and are costly.
A medicinal plant is any plant which in one or more of its organ, contains substance that can be used for therapeutic purpose or which is a precursor for synthesis of useful drugs (Sivakumar et al., 2007). Plant contains a large number of bioactive phytochemicals that are responsible for pharmacological action of plants and used for development of drugs. Many medicinal plants have shown their antilipidemic effect and proved their efficacy in cardiovascular diseases (Nordestgard et al., 2010; Wang, 1999).
One of such plants used very often in the management of the disease by the traditional medicine practitioners of Eastern Nigeria is Desmodium velutium, a perennial plant erect or semi-erect shrub or sub-shrub up to 3m light. It is widely distributed in subtropical Asia and tropical Africa. (Amowi and Azode, 2012).
Extracts of Desmodium velutium are used traditionally in some disease conditions particularly aphrodisiac and headache. Hence,
Desomdium velutium may be a source of a pharmacological active agent useful in the treatment of aches, pains and diarrhoea. In Ghana, native doctors mix the root of Desmodium lasincarpum with some hot peppers and use it as enema to cure blood in urine. In Eastern States of Nigeria, the plant locally knowngwuani”(Onyegbuleas.“Ikeaetal.,2012). In these present studies, I investigated the antilipidemic activity of the water (H2O) extract of
Desmodium velutinum Leaves on albino wistar rats.
2.0 LITEFATURE REVIEW
2.1 DESMODIUM VELUTIMUM
Desmodium velutinum is an upright woody perennial herb, sub-shrub or shrub, up to 3m tall (Onyegbule, et al., 2012).
Leaflets are light green to blue, green or darker above, paler beneath and with prominent pallid veins, roundish to elliptic to rhombic ovate, 3-9.4cm long , 2-7cm wide, entire or repaid (indented at the termination of the lateral veins) and ciliate, think, mostly soft velvety on both Surface with long stiff golden, reddish or white hairs. Inflorescence arises in left axis, and at the end of branches. They are densely flowered racemes up to 10cm or mere long; at least the terminal ones often paniculately branched. Flowers are white pink to blue, mauve or brilliant purple, usually appearing whitish or pale when dry.
Common names –velvet leaf D, villous LD
Hind: Jagru, Lagavang, Lippa-Pank
Malayalam: Orial, Sanskrit, Prasnipani
Tamil: Akilametaki, Amcapatayilni, Ankachupati
Telugu: Cliua madu, chimanduri
India: Lalkan while local name: Ikeagwuani (Igbos)
Botanical Name: Desmodium velutinum
Family: Fabaceae (Pea family)
Order: Fabales Class: Magnoliopsida, Division: Magnoliophyta, Genus:
Desmodium (Garg, 2006)
Other species of Desmodium include Desmodium lasiocarpum, Desmodium gangeticm, Desmodium repandum, Desmodium styracitolium, Desmodium diffusum, Desmodium heterophyllum, Desmodium triflorum, etc.
Desmodium velutinum can adapt to a wide range of soil PH, from very acid (pH 4.0) to alkaline. It also prefers more humidity climates of >1000>3000mm rainfall 1 year, tolerates up to 5 months dry season. It grows at altitudes from 0.1-500m with average temperature above 200C and has some shade tolerances as it grows in forest verges in New Guinea.
2.1.1 BIOLOGICAL AND MEDICINAL USE OF DESMODIUM
The water extract of Desmodium velutinum is use as an aphrodisiac (a substance that increases sexual desire, example of such plants includes tumera aphrodisiac, zingibar Offieinale, Mucuna Pruriens etc).
In South-East Asia, they are considered other prominent uses are the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and stomach ache. Desmodium velutinum may be a source of pharmacological active agent useful in the treatment of aches, pains and pyretic. It is also have diuretic effects (a substance that causes an increase in the flow of urine)
2.1.2 USES OF OTHER SPECIES OF DESMODIUM:
Desmodium shows a wide range of medicinal uses. In Ghana, native doctors mix the roots of Desmodium lasiocarpum with some hot-peppers and use it as enema to cure blood in urine. In the Philippines, a decoction of Desmodium triflorum is used as a mouth wash and as a expectorant (a cough medicine that helps you to get rid of thick liquid from the lungs). In India, fresh leaves of Desmodium triflorum are used internally as a galactagogue (a substance that increases lactation milk supply), some of the most commonly used herbal galactagogues are fenugreek, blessed thistle, alfalfa; and in Taiwan, the whole plant is used against fever, rheumatism, Jaundice and gonorrhea. Desmodium incanum is used as a diuretic, stomachic, Febrifuge and hemostatic in Central America. Desmodium heterocarpon are primarily forages, but are also used medicinally in Malesia. The boiled roots of
Desmodium heterocarpon are used in Malaysia to poultice sore breasts, and a decoction of the plant is regarded as a tonic and a bechic (a cough suppressant). In Cambodia, the stems of Desmodium heterocarpon are applied to fracture and snake bite. In Taiwan, a decoction of the root is used against rickets in children.
Desmodium heterophyllum is applied in Malaysia to treat sores, earache, stomach-ache and abdominal complaints. In India, the roots are considered carminative (a herb that either prevents formation of gas in the gastrointestinal tract or facilitates the expulsion of gas, thereby combating flatulence), tonic and diuretic, the leaves are used as a galactagogue and a decoction of the whole part plant is used to treat stomach-ache and abdominal problems. Desmodium gangeticum, Desmodium sequax, Desmodium styracifolium, Desmodium repandum are use in treating wounds, ulcers, toothache, stones in the gall bladder, kidneys or bladder and other skin problems.
2.2 PLANTS FOR ANTILIPIDEMIC
Other plants for lowering lipoprotein level in the body.
Terminalia Arjuna: Botanical name
Terminalia arjuna is a big evergreen tree up to 25meters high, bark grey, smooth leaves, flower small and fruits are 2.3-2.5m long. It has great importance due to its curative properties in heart problems. Phytochemicals belonging to different classes are present in the bark of terminalia arjuna including tannins, triterpenoids, saponina, arjunic acid, arjunolic acid, arjungenin (Manna et al., 2007).
Experimental studies revealed its dark shaved significant antioxidant (Vaidya et al., 2008; Shridhar and Gopal, 2009), antidiabetic (Raghavan and Kumari, 2006) antigastric ulcer (Devi et al., 2007), antimutagenic (Vaidya et al., 2008), anthelmintic, (Bachaya et al., 2009) activities.
The bark is useful in cardiovascular diseases, especially in disturbed cardial rhythm angina or myocardial infraction. Clinical studies suggested that it improves the blood circulation to heart, regulate blood pressure
(Nammi et al., 2003) is used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia (Jiwari et al., 1990; Ram et al., 1997; Chander et al., 2004) and inhibit the platelet aggregation (Namita et al., 2009). It protects liver and kidneys against the harmful effect of free radicals.
Botanical Name- Trigonella foenum- graecum.
Trigonella foenum- graecum commonly know as fenugreek (methi) is a widely cultivated aromatic herb varying in height from thirty or sixty centimeter and used both as vegetable (leaves) and spice (seeds) (Toppo et al., 2009). The seeds are known as “Maithr pickles, curry powders. The young leaves are eaten as vegetable and dried
leaves (called Kasuri methi) have a bitter taste and strong characteristic smell.
Experimental studies revealed that trigonella foenum seed and leaves extracts possess strong antidiabetic activity (Sharma et al., 2009; Vats et al.,
2002). Fenugreek seeds contain high quantity of saponins and glactosamine, whose cholesterol lowering effect is well established (Bahram et al., 2005;Xue et al., 2007).
Cardioprotective and immunomodulatory potential of this important plant is need to be explored.
Botanical Name: Rheum emodi Rheum emodi is commonly known as rhubarb, revand chini. It is a perennial plant that grows from Rhizomes. Rhubarb is an important herb used in ayurvedic medicines. It is a very important hepatoprotective and showed very good results against chemically induced elevated level of AST, ALT and ALP in serum (Ibrahim et al., 2008, Akhtar et al., 2009). Antibacterial (Babu et al., 2003), antifungal (Agarwal et al., 2000), hypoglycemic (Li and Wang, 1997) nephroprotective (Alam et al., 2005), Laxative, appetite stimulant, diuretic and anthelminthic activities.
Cardioprotective and immunomodulatory potential of this plant need to be explored.
Other examples of antilipidemic plants include coriandrum sativum, Euophorbia tirvealli, cyperus rotundus etc.
2.2.1 ADVANTAGE OF MEDICINAL PLANT (ANTILIPIDEMIC PLANTS) OVER SYNTHETIC DRUGS:
Medicinal plant is any plant which in one or more of its organ, contains substance that can be used for therapeutic purpose or which is a precursor for synthesis of useful drugs. Plants contains a large number of bioactive phytochemicals that are responsible for pharmacological action of plants and used for development of known drugs or a cheap source of known drugs such as reserpine from ravwolfia species.
Medicinal plants (Antilipidemic plant) are receiving extra ordinary importance and popularity as safe, efficacious and cost effective medicines with extraordinary benefits due to combination of medicinal ingredients with vitamins and minerals for antilipidemic activity. Many medicinal plants have shown their antilipidemic effects and proved their efficacy in cardiovascular diseases (Jain et al., 2007; Wang, 1999).
Synthetic drugs are those drugs with properties and effects similar to a known hallucinogen or narcotic but having a slightly altered chemical structure, especially such a drug created in order to evade restrictions against illegal substance. In synthetic drugs, the efficacy is not 100% guarantee. The frequent use of some drugs has severe side effects for example, in atorvastatin (Lipitor) drug, its side effect is diarrhea, headache etc. while
Desmodium velutinum is use in treating of diarrhea, headache and reduces pain etc. In synthetic drugs, the costly of the latter is increased by modern health technology which in many cases is inappropriate or irrelevant to the immediate needs of people in developing countries.
2.3 LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEIN:
Definition of Lipid:
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