MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION IN INDIGENOUS BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
(A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED COMPANIES IN RIVERS STATE)
This research work is focused on manpower development and utilization in indigenous business organizations using four firms as a case study.
It has been observed that a major problem confronting organizations in this present dispensation is the fact that productivity of workers is low. In order to improve on the productivity of workers and their efficiency, they need to be properly trained and utilized for the purpose which they serve. This therefore calls for proper development, training and full utilization of employees for this objectives is likely to be achieved as nothing can be demoralizing to a worker as when he believes that he has been unduly rated below expectation and cannot serve his purpose.
In order to address this problem squarely, research questions were formulated and hypothesis drawn. Various research instruments were used in the process.
Questionnaires were administered to all the workers (sample size). Similarly, documentary sources were also used in the data collection process.
The data collected was analyzed with the aid of the research questions and hypothesis which gave rise to certain findings.
Conclusion was drawn and recommendations were made based on the information gathered and data analyzed.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Scope of the study
1.5 Research questions
1.6 Research hypothesis
1.7 Definition of terms
2.0 Review of related literature
2.1 concept of manpower development
2.2 Problems of manpower development
2.3 Aims of manpower development
2.4 Manpower development programmes
2.5 Performance appraisal
2.6 Concept of manpower utilization
2.7 Problems of manpower utilization
3.0 Research design and methodology
3.1 Research design
3.2 Area of the study
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample and sampling technique
3.5 Instrument for data collection
3.6 Validity of instrument
3.7 Reliability of instrument
3.8 Method of data collection
3.9 Method of data analysis
4.0 Presentation and analysis of data
4.1 data analysis
4.2 Testing of hypothesis
4.3 Summary of results
5.0 Discussion of results / findings
5.1 Summary of findings
5.3 Implications of research findings
5.5 Suggestions for further research
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria like most other developing countries has had her fair share of the problems of development. One of the areas in which problem have been posed comes as the main focus of this work. ‘The manpower sector’
Simply defined manpower is the basic resource of any productive process. It combines all other factors of production to produce goods and serves which are beneficial to mankind.
Nwachukwu (1982 : 14) recounted Kuznet’s assertion that
“The major capital stock of any industrially advanced nation is not its physical equipment rather, it is the body of knowledge collected from tested findings discoveries, empirical science and the capacity and training of its population to use its knowledge”.
Ojo et al (1986 : 41) also stated the words of the late American president John F. kennedy in his first manpower report as follows:
“Manpower is the basic resource. It is the indispensable means of converting other resources to mankind’s uses and benefit. Howe well we develop and employ human skills is fundamental in deciding how much we achieve as a nation. The manpower in which we do so moreover with profoundly determine the kind of nation we become”.
The inability of any third world country to achieve full industrialization can be attributed to problems of manpower development and utilization. The process of developing and utilizing manpower in Nigeria has been surrounded by numerous difficulties which makes it almost impossible for industries to perform satisfactorily.
The area of manpower utilization being the proper use of workforce has also been posed with crucial problems. These problems can also be looked at as manpower development problems as manpower utilization is an integral part of manpower development.
A one-time secretary general of the United Nations Mr. U. Thant in his report the third (3rd) session of UNESCO in 1967 listed some problem areas thus
i. Matching existing skills with effective demand for skills
ii. Use of skills required
iii. Popular participation in development
iv. Increased involvement in the economy by certain potentially productive groups in the population.
v. Loss of skilled persons through temporary or permanent emigration.
Occurrence of the above listed problems are very minimal in more advanced countries unlike in third world countries where here exist high levels of unemployment, loss of skilled personnel through emigration and so many other problems arising from the ineffective development and utilization of manpower.
All these problem constitute part of the barriers between third world countries and industrialization. Coming down to the organizational level, the problems are largely similar but only differ in scope. Organizational problems are a lot narrower in scope than national problems.
However, in indigenous organizations, manpower is an important factor that enables the organization grows which make sit more necessary to develop and utilize manpower. In other words manpower development and utilization plays an important role in the growth of indigenous organizations.
In the course of this study, we shall try to investigate the causes of problems in a number of selected indigenous firms. Solutions and recommendation will be given s to how best the alleviate these problems based on the findings.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
From the foregoing, it can be said that growth and productivity of any organization is largely dependent on human perormance. However due to the dynamic nature of our society, new technologies come up everyday and old ones become obsolete. This is particularly true of indigenous Nigerian organizations who have to keep up with every day changes in technology.
These organizations are faced with a problem in effectively developing manpower to keep up with the continually rising pace of development. Also encompassed here is the problem of using already available skilled and semi-skilled manpower to achieve optimal result. All these the workers’ strive for self and career development and thus the productivity of the organizations. Since countries become more advanced economically and technologically, they become more vulnerable to under motivated workers and managers social values are shifted away from work as the most important thing in town towards a balanced view of self development, family development and career development.
In a nutshell, the inability of organizations to effectively develop and utilize the human resources available to them has reduced to a great extent, its ability to adhere its objectives. This is the problem that this research sets out to tackle.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study is being carried out to achieve a number of objectives of which are:
i. To identify the factors that hinders the effective development and utilization of manpower.
ii. To examine the extent to which these factor affect the performance of workers in indigenous organizations
iii. To determine if workers are sent for training and development in line with new technology.
iv. To ascertain the level of workers sent on training and development
v. To find out whether they are fully utilized after the training course.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study deals with the problems facing indigenous organizations in the aspect of manpower; its development and utilization. The study covers indigenous business firms only in Rivers State.
There is no doubt that the restriction will affect the generalization of the findings of this study but it is hoped that the sample size is wide enough to draw conclusions.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In pursuit of the research purpose of this study, the following questions have been formulated.
i. Is there any relationship between manpower development / utilization and organizational performance?
ii. Of what importance is manpower in the production process?
iii. To what extent is its importance appreciated by the entrepreneur?
iv. To what extent is effective manpower development and utilization likely to enhance productivity of organizations?
v. Are workers sent for internal and external training and development courses?
vi. Are they properly utilized after training?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The significance of this study is one that is of great importance and will be of benefit to the following groups:
i. Management: It will help management in handling its persistent manpower problems. It will also contribute to the knowledge as well as assisting the management of any firm to take informed decisions.
ii. Employers: This study will make it possible for employers help their employees increase their performance.
iii. Employers: The increased performance of employees will lead to higher reward and good pay.
iv. The Society: Increased productivity will lead to circulation of enough food to the nation making it a better place to live in.
v. Other researchers: This group stands to benefit from this research work as some of them may review this study in the course of their own researchers.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For improved understanding of this work, it is necessary to define some key words used in this study
a. Manpower Craftsmen or other skills which are
employed in creating, designing and operating productive and service organizations or other economic institutions.
b. Development The gradual growth of something so
that it becomes more advanced and enhanced
c. Utilization The extent to which the capacities and
skills are being used effectively.
d. Indigenous Organizations These are organizations whose
ownership and control rests fully on the natives of the country in which it operates.
e. Emigration The situation where people leave their
country to live permanently in another country.
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