COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANTIMICROBIAL STRENGTH OF THREE MOST COMMON ANTIBIOTICS USED IN ENUGU (CASE STUDY OF ANTIBIOTICS DRUGS BROUGHT IN OBIAGU.) ABATRACT In comparing the antimicrobial strength of three most common antibiotics, which includes: streptomycin chloranphenicol and gentarccin. Samples of urine and high vaginal swab (H.V.S) were collected from park lane Enugu. The organisms isolated were pure culture of staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Sensitivity test was carried out with the use of sensitivity disk containing various minimum inhibitory concentration of the different antibiotics. The result obtained shaved that gentamicn was more effective followed by chloramphenicol while some organisms shaved resistant to streptomycin. LIST OF TABLE TABLE 1 NUTRIENT AGAR TABLE 2 BLOOD AGAR TABLE 3: ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST SYAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TABLE 4: ANTIBIOTIC AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1: STREPTOMYCIN FIGURE 2: CHLORAMPHENICOL FIGURE3: SENSITIVITY TEST ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FIGURE 4 SENSITIVITY TEST ON ESCHERICHIA COLI FIGURE 5: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AGAINST ANTIBIOTICS FIGURE 6: ESCHERICHIA COLI AGAINST ANTIBIOTICS TABLE OF CONTEANT CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Historical background 1.2 Aims and objective 1.3 Hypothesis 1.4 Statement of problem 1.5 Scope of study 1.6 Limitation of study CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Literature review 3.1 Procurement of antibiotics 3.1.1 streptomycin 2.1.2 Chloramphenicol 2.1.3 Gentamicin 2.2 Antimicrobial activity in vitro 2.3 Antimicrobial activity in vivo 2.4 Resistance to antimicrobial drugs 2.5 Factors affecting antimicrobial activity 2.6 Clinical use of antibiotics 2.7 Characteristic of antibiotics CHAPTER THREE 3.0 Materials and method 3.1 Sample collection 3.1.1 Media composition 3.1.2 Direction for the preparation of nutrient agar 3.1.3 Direction for the preparation of blood agar 3.1.4 Material used for the prewritten of media CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 Isolation and identification procedures 4.1.1 Isolation and identification of staphylococcus aureus 4.1.2 Isolation and identification of escherichia coli 4.2 Sensitivity test CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 RECOMMENDATION 5.1 CONCLUSION REFERENCES CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTORICAL BACK GROUND Antibiotics are chemicals when the chemical are put into the body, they stop the growth of kinds of germs. They help the body to fight diseases. More than 3,000 years ago ancient people stumbled over the discovery that some moulds could be used as a cure. The egyptians, the chinese, and indians of central American would use mold to treat rashes and infected would. At that time they didn’t understand either diseases or treatment. As time went on, people began to gain some insight of disease. In the 1860 Louis Pasteur Shaw that many disease were caused it bacteria. Later he discovered that we may be able to fight germ and other microbes. It was two German doctors, who were first to make an effective medication form microbes. Kudo if and Emmerich and Oscar has conducted their experiment in the 1890. They proved that germ that would for another. All the men did was to take the germ from infected bandages and grow then in a test tube. They would then isolate a particular germ that caused green in factions in open would. This germs was bacteria called Bacillus pyoicyaneus. They put then into another test tube containing other type of bacteria, it was then it happened that the bacillus pyocyaneus wiped out the other disease germ. The germs that was killed were those that caused cholera, typhoid, diphtheria and anthrau. From this the two men created a medication that they called pyoanase, it was the first antibiotics used in hospitals. In 1928 Alexander Fleming, a Scottish scientist, discovered penicillin, the first antibiotics. He was keeping in a petn dish when a speck of mold fell in, it cause the mold to grow on the nutrient agar used to feed the bacteria. Surpassingly, it stopped the growth of the bacteria. Fleming through the mold called penicillin notatum produced a substance that killed the bacteria and so called it penicillin. However, he was not able to entrant it from broth in which he grew the mold. In 1945, Waksman used the word antibiotics for the first time and proposed that it can be defined as a chemical substance of microbial origin that possesses antibiotic powers. He discovered a drug called streptomycin. It onginated frommicrobes found in soil and was a cure for many intestinal diseases. Now antibiotics like penicillin and streptomycin was discovered. Each was effective against certain disease, but scientist wanted more. Doctors however, anted broad spectrum drug. That is a single antibiotics that could cure many disease The search proved successful one laboratory discovered Aureonycin, which is a drug that does the job of penicillin and streptomycin. Another laboratory discovered chloromycin. In 1949, yet another laboratory came with one of the effective antibiotics ever found, terranycin. This drug could be used against many bacteria disease (Katzung, 1994). 1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE 1. To identify causative organism that are delectious to mans health. 2. To determine the potency of the different antibiotics. 3. To know the type of organism sensitive to the different antibiotics. 1.3 HYPOTHESIS H0- Streptomycin is more effective H1 – Streptonyin is not effective H2 - Chloramphenicol is not effective H3- Chloramphenicol is not effective H4- Gentamicin is more effective H5 –Gentanicin is not effective H6 – Comparing the strength of the three antibiotics. 1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Due to the problem encountered in Enugu Urban (obiagu), most people abuse antibiotics owing to the general belief that antibiotics can be used in the treatment of all kinds of diseases. This can result to drug resist. Accumulation of these drugs can lead to internal denage. Hence this study which compares the antimicrobial strength of three antibiotics. 1.5 SOCOP OF STUDY This work will be limited to the maximum inhibitory concentration and know the organism sensitive to the different antibiotics under certain temperature.
THE IMPACT OF NAFDAC ON MARKETING OF DRUGS IN ENUGU STATETHE IMPACT OF NAFDAC ON MARKETING OF DRUGS IN ENUGU STATE ABSTRACT This research project is primarily concerned with the impact of NAFDAC on marketing of Drugs in Enugu state. The purpose of this research is to know how the national Agency for food and Drugs Administration and control (NAFDAC ) can... More