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PRODUCTION AND COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL, VITAMINS AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF COCOA BEVERAGE WITH MILO

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:56
  • Methodology:ANOVA
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Food Technology Project Topics & Materials)
PRODUCTION AND COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL, VITAMINS AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF COCOA BEVERAGE WITH MILO
ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to determine the physicochemical properties, vitamin content and sensory evaluation of cocoa beverage. Cocoa pod was harvested, carefully opened to remove the seeds from the pod, then it was allowed to ferment for 8 days, after fermentation the cocoa seeds are washed and dried for 7days to remove moisture. The seeds were sorted, it was roasted twice, then the nibs was ground into a smooth cocoa paste then fat was extracted. Other ingredient such as milk solid, sugar, malt extract was added to the cocoa powder ground and sieved to get fine cocoa beverage. The cocoa beverage and the control MILO beverage were subjected to laboratory analysis including physicochemical properties, vitamin content and sensory evaluation using standard methods. The laboratory results were subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA at 95% (P<0.05) significant level.  The result obtained were pH (6.28±0.01, 5.88±0.00), Bulk Density (0.71±0.00, 0.82±0.00), Gelatin Concentrate (25.00±14.14, 35.00±0.00), Dispersibility (91.50 ± 0.70, 83.60 ±0.56), Porosity (91.12 ± 0.17, 35.27 ±0.10), solubility (72.47±0.04, 57.45±0.17), Emulsion capacity and stability 0(mins) (18.55± 0.02, 42.61±0.19), 30(mins) (16.33 ±0.47, 39.64 ±0.50), 60(mins) (16.27±0.38,39.58±0.48) this result revealed that sample B (Cocoa Beverage) has similar physicochemical  and vitamin content with the control sample A (MILO Beverage). Hence sample B (Cocoa Beverage) is recommended to be used.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Nutritional Value of Cocoa
Uses of Cocoa    
Significance          
Aims and Objectives         
CHAPTER TWO
Origin of Cocoa                         
Varieties of Cocoa                                
Cultivation                              
Pest and Diseases                           
Harvesting                                    
Harvesting Processes                           
Nutritional Facts of Cocoa Powder                   
Health Benefit of Cocoa Powder        
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD                       
3.2. Methods                               
3.3.Method and Laboratory Analysis                       
3.4 Sensory Evaluation                           
3.5 Statistical Analysis                              
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION                    
4.1 RESULT                               
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                   
5.1    Conclusion                               
5.2    Recommendation                          
REFERENCE       
APPENDICES        
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1:    Production Statistics of Cocoa   
Table 2:   Nutritional facts of Cocoa Powder       
Table 3:  Vitamins         
Table 4:  Minerals      
Table 5:  Physicochemical determination of cocoa Beverage and milo           
Table 6:  Vitamin Content of Sample           
Table 7:  Sensory Evaluation Of Cocoa Powder          
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 1: Flow Charts for the Production of Cocoa Beverage     
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Cocoa plant, it only grows in humid and tropical climates with cultivation limited to regions between 20 degrees north and 20 degrees south of the equator. Climate of fundamental importance in the development of fruit culture. Cocoa also called tropical evergreen tree is grown for its edible seed. It grows in the forest to a height of 6 – 12 metres(20-40ft.). Usually remaining at the lower end of its range. Its oblong leathery leaves measure up to 30cm (12 inches) in length and are periodically shed and replaced by new leaves that are strikingly red when young. Its flowers are either foul-smelling or odourless can be present at all times but appear in abundance twice a year. The flowers grow in clusters directly from the trunk and limbs and are about 1cm (0.4 inch.) in height and breadth. It grows from a trunk and large branch of the tree rather than from the end of the branch which is similar to jack fruit unlike other fruiting trees.
Cocoa plant is a delicate and demanding tree requiring temperature between 24-26 degree Celsius, abundant and regular rains and soil rich in potassium, nitrogen and trace elements. It is propagated by seed or by cutting such part in other words are called tear plant. It takes approximately 4-12 years for a tear plant to bear seeds and 3 years for a new plant to be ready for harvesting. They require 127cm inches of rainfall per year and prefer acidic soil.
Young cocoa trees are very delicate and vulnerable to direct sun light and wind having to develop initially in the protection of shade of other trees affectionately, referred to as “mother of cocoa” (these include cotton pant, rubber tree e.t.c) which grows about 5metres within 3years and reaches 8metres in 10 years. A tree leaves normally for 30-40 years. In most plantation new cocoa trees replace older trees at 25years interval.
Only midges of the forcimyia genus carry out pollination. Only 5-10% of the flowers are fertilized and 5 more percent is required for the fruit in forms of pods to age.
According to the variety, a cocoa ripe pod can be weighed between 200g and 1kg which contains 20-60 in a cluster, surrounded by a white gel (or mucilage), which is greatly priced by parrots and monkeys, the pod green or red-violet before ripening. It becomes yellow or orange upon maturity and measures approximately 7-9cm in width. The tree is very sensitive to insects and diseases, some insects can use younger trees to whither, illness and parasites can destroy 20-30% of the total production.
Pods are harvested with machete, it’s been extracted from the pod, the seeds are fermented and then sun dry. A producing tree can deliver an average of 0.5- 2kg of dread seeds per year.
Cocoa are of different types;
CRIOLLO means creole in Spanish: this is the original tree which is grown in Venezuela, central America and Mexico also found in countries like Ecaudar, Nicaragua and Sri-lanka. It is considered to be the prince of cocoa, criolla has a reputation for fineness and an intense aroma. It represents only 5% of global production in part due to its vulnerability to insects and diseases. It is reserved for use in only the very finest chocolates.
FORASTERO means foreigner in Spanish: this is very diverse and is more resistant to diseases and pests, therefore more production than the criollo. Originally grown in the high amazon region and it’s the pre domanial variety cultivated in Africa and consequently accounts for 80% of world production. It is considered to be of original quality (very slight aroma and so strong, short bitter taste, and is widely used in mass production of chocolate products
TRINITARIO means Trinidad: This is a natural biological hybrid between the criollo and the forastero which was exported from Trinidad where the Spanish colonist had established plantations. Its qualities vary between average and superior with spin cocoa butter content. It represents 15% of the world production.
Cocoa seed at maturity consists of two large curled cotyledons, a small embryo, a thin membrane (the remains of the endosperm) and a leathery Testa or seed coat. The trash seeds are embedded in mucilaginous, white or pinkish, sugary and acidic pulp. Seeds are the principal source of cocoa or cocoa powder and are highly prized as a nutritious beverage and chocolate used as food for all the world over.
Cocoa is commonly found in some certain areas. In Nigeria, are Ondo, Cross-River, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti, Edo, Oyo, Kogi, Aba, Kwara, Delta, Adamawa, having Ondo state as the highest producing state.
NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF COCOA
Cocoa derivatives are high-energy foods, due to high content of carbohydrates and fats. Cocoa provides vitamins A,B,E,K. vitamin B is the most concentrated vitamin in cocoa minerals like manganese, copper, iron, phosphorous, zinc, potassium, calcium, selenium. Also, cocoa as a raw material, contains folic acid, and thiamine (B1) which is essential nutrients for metabolic regulation. Cocoa powder is a nutrient-dense food. It provides especially significant amounts of minerals.
Cocoa contains polyphenols which prevent oxidization of cholesterol. It can be used to heal wounds, burns, rheumatism, cough, etc.
Cocoa provides 293 calories per 100g and chocolate according to its composition provides between 450-600 calories.
USES OF COCOA
Cocoa is used for various things in the food industry. It can be used to produce beverage (chocolate or cocoa powder), or processed into juice using cocoa pulp. Also, cocoa pulp can be eaten fresh. Cocoa can also be used in beauty industries (companies that produce soap, body cream, powder, etc.).
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
If the project is successful it would allow for the availability of cocoa beverage to become available for the common man.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The study was aimed at
    Producing an acceptable cocoa powder from cocoa pod.
   To evaluate the physiochemical properties, and promote the composition of the cocoa beverage
    To evaluate the vitamin content of cocoa beverage
    To determine the sensory properties of the cocoa beverage
PRODUCTION AND COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL, VITAMINS AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF COCOA BEVERAGE WITH MILO

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Details

Type Project
Department Food Technology
Project ID FTE0155
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 56 Pages
Methodology ANOVA
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Food Technology
    Project ID FTE0155
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 56 Pages
    Methodology ANOVA
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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