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THE ROLE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES IN CRIME CONTROL IN NIGERIA, A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:58
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Peace And Conflict Studies Project Topics & Materials)
  THE ROLE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES IN CRIME CONTROL IN NIGERIA, A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE
ABSTRACT

This study examines the role of law enforcement agency in crime control in Nigeria; A case study of Nigeria Police force (NPF). Since (2009) till date, the Nigeria society has been undergoing visual criminal activities that affect everybody in the society. This crime arises out of uncertainties or in adequacy of crime control and increase in poverty in the contemporary time in spite of abounding policy presence in the society. This could be as a result of power disorientation of Nigeria police force (NPF) and the citizen rejection of obeying authority and not being a patriot. Any such misconduct is capable of disturbing the realization of the agency objective and affecting the peace atmosphere of the society. An important step is to ensure success in the realization of the agency aims and objectives and to understand the dynamics of crime in the society and methodology of crime control. In conclusion, we can see that there are no effective tools for crime control in Nigeria. For this singular reason Nigeria Police force (NPF) was chosen to give a clear picture of crime control in the society. In this study, we have been able to identify few of the numbers crime that always occurs in the society. The researcher used historical research survey and descriptive static in computing the data for this study. The main objective of this work is to capture and understand crime control in Nigeria, with Nigeria Police Force (NPF) as a case study. On this account, we argue that high-headedness of government; or equipping of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) and lack of human resource affect crime control in Nigeria. Using the rational choice theory this studies as able to establish that criminal as a rational human being in need who recognized his readiness to commit a particular crime. This study used data largely generated from institutional and official documents of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) and sister agencies, internet material, news prints, textbooks and articles. Traditional, following the finding in-this research, the researcher therefore recommends among in the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) to regain public confidence and co-operation needed to win the fight against crime in Nigeria Society.  
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the study -    -    - 
1.2    Statement of the problem -    -    -
1.3    Research Question -    -    -    - 
1.4    Objective of the study -    -
1.5    Significant of the study - 
1.6    Scope of the study -    -    - 
1.7    Limitation of the study        -  
1.8    Hypotheses     -         -       
1.9    Research method     -    -
1.10    Definition of terms -    -   
CHAPTER TWO:     LITERATURE REVIEW    
2.1      Conceptual Frame work -   
2.2    Summary of Review of Related Literature
2.3    Theoretical framework    -
CHAPTER THREE:  RESEARCH METHOD
3.1    Design of the Study-    -
3.2    Population of the Study-    -
3.3    Instrumentation    -    -    -
3.4     Instrumentation Validation -
3.5    Sample size and Sample Techniques -       -
3.6     Method of Data Collection-    -            
3.7    Method of Data Analysis-    -   
3.8   Validation and Reliability    -    - 
CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULT, ANALYSIS, FINDING
4.1   Data presentation analysis     
4.2    Discussion of results      -             -
4.3   Summary of Findings    -    -    - 
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       Conclusion-    -    -    -
5. 2      Recommandations-    -    -    -    - 
REFERENCE -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -
Appendis 1: Questionnaire Model     

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
    It has been believed that man by nature is evil. It has been argued that crime control is a set of factors or mechanism designed to prevent man from doing evil or atrocity. In the ancient days, there was no coordinated control over the evil inclinations of men. There was general lawlessness. There was a state of anarchy in which people moved by purely mechanical appetite and desire were always at war or conflict with one another. Closer (1995.8) view evil as a struggle over value and claims to secure status, power and resources struggle in which the aims of the opponents is to neutralize, injure or eliminate rivals. As days went by, people realized the need to renounce their anarchical rights and give up their sovereignty to a constituted authority to safeguard their lives and property and keep the peace (Ogunbameru and Rotimi (2006:-5). The authority made laws to regulate the activities of the subjects so that the law so made might not end up in words alone, there was the need to set up machinery for the enforcement of the law. This marked the organ of police force as a law enforcement agency. According to Oputa cited in Salawu (2003:148), law ultimately exists to ensure justice and fair play in society.
        Before the advent of colonialism, there were some forms of policing activities in both centralized and Decentralized communities in Nigeria, through these were informed. According to Tekena (1970:75-76)” among the Akpoto in Idoma division in Benue province the masked Areka like the Ibo Mmo (masquerades) society caught offenders against customary law and brought them to justice. Similarly, the leopard (Ekpe) and ghost (Ekpo) societies among the Efik/Ibibio enforced customary law, recovered debts and generally including age grade were used to enforce the law of the communities. In Youruba land, there were similar organs. For instance, llari as the local police performed the functions of crime control and prevention, arrest and discipline of offenders. Hunters were also used to guard the communities. In the north of the country were the Dogarai who were charged with the duties and responsibility of guarding the emirs among other functions similar to those of the Han, such as arrest and discipline of offenders, crime control and prevention, prosecution, Tax native police force were used native authorities (member 1982:1)
    What became known as the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) today started in 1861 with a consular guard of thirty 30 members in Lagos. This police force later in 1863 became known as Hausa guard. As a result of this, an ordinance was passed in 1879 establishing a constabulary for Lagos colony. “This was military in orientation but performed minor police function. It again became a Hausa” constabulary but in January 1896 it became known as Lagos police force. It was empowered to maintain internal and external security of the area (Olewe and Agua 1994: 13-14). In 1888 and 1894 the Royal Niger constabulary and the Niger coast constabulary were established in Lagos and calabar respectively in 1960, the     North and South of the country were declared protectorates of Nigeria; hence there were the protectorate forces which continued to exist even after the 1914 amalgamation of the northern and southern protectorate. The Lagos police force and part of the Niger coast constabulary became known as the southern Nigeria police force. The remaining part was known as the southern Nigeria Regiment in 1960, the North and South of the country were declared protectorates of Nigeria; hence there were two protectorates. The Lagos police force and part of the Niger coast constabulary became known as the southern Nigeria police Nigeria Regiment in 1960. The Royal Niger constabulary was split into two. One part became known as the Northern Nigeria police force while the other part was known as Northern Nigeria Regiment (Okere 1991: 12). The two protectorates forces what is known today as the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) under the police ordinance No2 of 1930 with its headquarters in Lagos (member 2000:14) from the historical account above, it can be seen that the Nigeria police force (NPF) has undergone several metamorphoses to become what it is today.
    Presently, the force has an Inspector-General (IG) as its administrative head. The first indigenous Inspector-General was Louis Edet from 1964 – 1966 (Okeke 191:13), Today the Nigeria police force has in its command six departments or directorate, 12 zonal commands and 37 state commands including the federal capital Territory (F.C.T) Abuja. Each of the department is headed by a Deputy Inspector-General of police (D.I.G) which each of the zonal commands is headed by an Assistant Inspector-General (A.I.G.) a Commissioner of Police (C P) is the head of each state command (Olewe and Anga 1994:36)
    From the above historical account, it can be absence that although the pre-colonial and modern Nigeria     Police Force has similar statutory functions, the Nigeria Police Force has similar statutory with functions, the pre-colonial police force were fraught with incompetence, no formal training, no competent administration and so on, hence the need for modern Nigeria Police Force (NPF). The Nigeria Police Force (NPF) has been strategized to carry out its statutory functions of maintenance of law and order, prevent and detection of crime, protection of life. And property, apprehension of offenders, crime investigation, and performance of military duty as may be required of them, and so on. This study therefore intends to analyzed the methods and techniques used by the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) in carrying out these functions and to find out the how far it has worked successfully in eradicating crime in the Nigeria society, as well as to find out the problems militating against the effort of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) in crime control.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
    Crime is as old as man; the first recorded violent crime was the murder of Abel by his elder brother Cain (Gen 4:8). Since then crime has continued to spread boundlessly. All nations and international organization like the United Nation (UN) African Union (AU), European Union (EU) and many other have been battling to tackle the resultant security challenges which have heightened in the contemporary times.  Nigeria as a Nation is currently faced with a high crime rate occasioned by the introduction into nation like terrorism, human trafficking, kidnapping/abduction assassination and so on, while common crimes like robbery (armed), stealing, house breaking, car theft, advance fee fraud and so on, hence continued to increase and caused fear in the society.  
    Heal et al (1985:1) have opined that “crime figure remains the barometer of effective policing; using crime rates feel demand for more effective actions on the part of the police”. It is in the light of the above that the Nigeria Police Force (N.P.F) has developed some strategies to put crime in check. These strategies have been critically reviewed by some authors; Thus; Igbo (2000:124-129) enumerates the strategies used by the Nigeria Police to include patrol, raid, public check points, public education and so on, Member (2000:50-59) stated the statutory power of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) help to control crime through statutory power to arrest and prosecute. This views that without statutory powers of arrest, search, and prosecution and so on. Balogun cited in Nwuchukwu (2010:42) throws his weight behind community policing as a crime control strategy saying it is, “a means of forming partnership with the residents, business owners, communities and agencies with a view to eradicating crime and improving the quality of life in Nigeria communities” Okeke (1991:16) decries the poor living and working conditions of officers and men of the Nigeria police force and its relative consequences on the performance of their duties.
    However, it is unfortunate that in spite of the above literature, no author has been able to comment on the issue of the Nigeria Police human resources and equipments, even as it has been widely reported by the Nigeria press that criminal gangs of nowadays have always out numbered the police deployed to counter them. However Danbazau (2007:222) asserts that “crime control depend on the extent to which the law enforcement agency is perceived and accepted as legitimately committed to improving the security and respond to the safety of the public, ability to enforce and maintain peace and order in the society. It is against this background that this study will constructively look at the following research questions.

1.3    RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.    Is lack of human resources in the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) is hindering the fight against crime?
2.    Is the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) well equipped to fight crime?
3.    Has the community policing been successfully implemented in Nigeria?

1.4    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    This study examines the role of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) in crime using various strategies it discusses the rising security challenges caused by the high rate of crime in society (problem) with a view to suggesting the way forward (prospects).
Therefore, the objective of the study is as follows:
1.    To find out if lack of human recourse in the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) is hindering the   fight     against crime
2.    To verify if the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) is well equipped to fight crime.
3.    To ascertain if the community policing has been successfully implemented in Nigeria.

1.5         SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Generally, this study explores the overall role of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) in crime control in the nation. It attempts to look into other literature on the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) with a view to making valuable contributions towards improving the quality of crime control. This study has come at no belted time than this; when the nation is facing tremendous security challenges.
    Basically, the study is of great importance in that it will be a welcome improvement on already existing literature on crime control functions of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF). It is hoped that this study will be of great benefit to security researchers and practitioners, Nigeria Police Force (NPF), student of peace Studies and Conflict Resolution, policy makers, peace practitioner, private individuals as well as the general public. It is also hoped that the study will assist government in formulating quality policies geared towards a better and effective crime control management to stem the tide of crime in Nigeria. The Nigeria Police Force (NPF) can tap from the inches of this study to improve on crime control functions and management.
1.6    SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    Obasi (199:99) says that good research needs to be delimited to a manageable scope and should define the following: the issue, the period and the geographical area covered as well as the subjects studies. To this end, interviews with officers and men of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) which bother on patrol, raid surveillance, beat duty, intelligence report, arrest and prosecution of criminals, fire power, man power, mob/crowd control, community policing, clandestine operations and other crime control strategies were used to get to the root of the matter. The period covered by the study is 2009 till date, which 144 officers and men from the six geo Political zone of the country were interviewed. It is hoped that the gathered from these sources will yield fruitful results to the study.
1.7    LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
          During the process of this research work the study experiences lack of financial material and time resources. Due to inability to reach all the members and officers of Nigeria Police Force the sample owning to some circumstance, the resulting sample was not represented as expected. Some of the officers showed low level of cooperation towards the study and the quality of responses adversely influence by the low level of education of the respondents. The research was unable to use certain more discriminating analysis and interpretation technique due to limited knowledge. The constraint of the research affected the quality reliability, validity, applicability and adaptability of the study
1.8        HYPOTHESE
        This research work is based on the following hypotheses:
1.    Lack of human resources in the Nigeria Police Force NPF is hindering the fight against crime.
2.    The Nigeria Police Force NPF is well equipped to fight crime.
3.     Community policing has been successfully implemented in Nigeria.
1.9    RESEARCH METHOD
        Generally, this study adopt unstructured interview which involves interviews with both senior and junior police officers. The major instrument used to obtain data is the interviews; and so on method of data collection was the qualitative method which dwells on documentary source. The studies also adopt qualitative descriptive analysis to analyses the quantum of data collected.

1.10    DEFINITION OF TERMS
              For better understanding of the subject matter, the following Term has been marked for definition:
•    Law:  The body of rules and standards issued by a government, or to be applied by court and similar authorities. Danbazu (1994:4) described law as a “collection of rules identified by the sovereign with the reciprocal recognition by the people governed and enforced through the machinery of justice”. In other words, it is a body of rules of social conduct made by the state to regulate the conduct of individual and groups which places sanction on violators. The above definition is relevant to this study since the police force the criminal law of the state.
•    Agency: According to Oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary (7th edition) an agency is a “Government department that provides particular services”
•    Crime Control:  Section 2 of the criminal code cap 77 (LFN) 1990 defines crime as an act of omission which lenders the person doing it liable to punish under this code or any other act. Crime control according to Oputa (1975:21) Therefore refers to all effort directed to reducing the volume of crime, keeping it from spreading, restricting and preventing its infection and contamination and preventing it from spreading to new areas.
•    Police:  The word “police” are derived from the Latin work “politic” and from the Greek work “polis” which means city. This suggests that they are involved in the administration of the city. This Sutherland cited in Igbo (2000:121) defined police as agents of the state statutorily charged with maintenance of law and order and enforcement of regular criminal cod

THE ROLE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES IN CRIME CONTROL IN NIGERIA, A CASE STUDY OF THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE

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Type Project
Department Peace And Conflict Studies
Project ID PCS0007
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 58 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Peace And Conflict Studies
    Project ID PCS0007
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 58 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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