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COMPARATIVE STUDY/ANALYSIS OF TOXICOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF FLUTED PUMPKIN LEAVE (UGU) TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS CULTIVATED WITH NPK FERTILIZER AND ANIMAL MANURE

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  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:52
  • Methodology:Scientific
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Science Lab Technology Project Topics & Materials)
COMPARATIVE STUDY/ANALYSIS OF TOXICOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF FLUTED PUMPKIN LEAVE (UGU) telfairia occidentalis CULTIVATED WITH NPK FERTILIZER AND ANIMAL MANURE
ABSTRACT

Telfairia occidentalis is a member of the family cucurbiteae and is indigenous to southern Nigeria as a drought –tolerant dioecious perennial crop that is usually grown trellised. These indicate why it serves as one of the major vegetables consumed in southern Nigeria. Because of its high demand, many farmers have resort to the use of Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizer in growing this vegetable. This present research work is to investigate the anti-nutritional factors and heavy toxic minerals in pumpkin leave grown on organic manure (animal waste) and inorganic manure (NPK fertilizer). The aqueous extracts of both were screened for Saponin, alkaloid, tannins, oxalates and heavy toxic metals like Nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium and mercury. The results indicate the absence of oxalic acid, tannic acid cadmium and mercury in both leaves. But present of Saponin only in pumpkin (NPK) leave (1.5%) and Nickel, lead and chromium in both leaves but of higher level in pumpkin (NPK).
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction   -
1.1 Background of the study- -
1.1    Aim and objective
1.2    Significance of the study - -
1.3    Statement of problem - -
1.4    Limitation -
1.5    Hypothesis
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 BIOCHEMISTRY OF FLUTED PUMPKIN LEAVE -
2.1 Proximate composition -
2.2 Elemental Nutrients composition -
2.3 Water soluble vitamins
2.4 Phytochemicals (antioxidants,heavy metal and
 anti-nutritional factors) -
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY -
3.1 Materials
3.2 Collection of samples
3.30 Methods  -
3.3.1 Sterilization of materials used -
3.3.2 Preparation of sample  -
3.4 Determination of heavy metals and methods/
Digestion of samples for AAS analysis -
3.50 Determination of Anti-nutritional factors methods
3.5.1 Tannin determination - - -
3.5.2 Saponin determination - - -
3.5.3 Alkaloid determination - -
3.5.4 Oxalate determination -
 CHAPTER FOUR.
4.0 RESULTS
4.1 Table 1: heavy metals for both leaves -
4.2 Table 2: Percentage composition of
anti-nutritional- - - - -
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISSCUSSION, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND REFERENCES
5.1 Discussion  - -
5.2 Conclusion -
5.3 Recommendation - - -
      References. - - - -
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Telfairia occidenalis, commonly called fluted pumpkin is a vegetable which belong to the family cucurbitaceae. The plant is drought-tolerant, dioecious perennial crop that is usually grown trellised. It is a crop of commercial important grown in West Africa [Nigeria, Ghana and Siere Leone] being the major producer but mostly in Nigeria. {Akoroda, etal.1990}.
It has different traditional names; among the Igbos, it is known as ugu, Iroko or Apokoro in Yoruba, Ubong in Efik, Umee in Urhhobo and Umeke in Edo. The Ghananians call it Krobonko and Siere Leone calls it Gonugbe.
Fluted pumpkin (ugu) is cultivated by seed. The seed is planted one foot apart by turning the exposed part of the seed upward and the other side in the soil. It needs manure application either animal manure or mineral fertilizer (Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) which is spread round the seed plant. The planted seed needs air, free movement and enough water. It is preferably grown near water source or under irrigation and in sunlight spot. [AderIbigbe, etal.1999].
Telfairia occidentalis (ugu) is usually staked into a frame of bamboo (ie on a trestle-like structure) or a shelf is made for it to climb on when twining. It may also be plated with yam (discora spp) or cassava (manihot spp) in which it uses their stakes for support. It can also be allowed to spread flat on the field. A beneficial outcome growing the ugu flat on the field is the suppression of weeds especially when intercropped with a tall plant like maize. [Adaramoye, etal.2007].
The growing period begins in April or May when seeds are planted. The first leave and shoot can be harvested after a month and can be collected every 2-4 weeks. The fluted pumpkin (ugu) has both male and female sex though the sex is hard  to determine until it starts producing flowers and fruit. It is the female that produces flower and fruit. The fruit is quite large ranging 16-105 centimeters in length and an average of 9 centimeters in diameter. The seed count in large fruit reach up to 100 – 156 typically measuring between 3.4 and 4.9 centimeters in length. The flowers grow in sets of five with creamy-white and dark red petals, contrasting with the light green color of the fruit. Between October – December, the fruit is harvested (stored) and sometimes left on the stake/shelf for the following planting season. [Lintas.2007]. Infections occur frequently on the fruit if not properly handled. Although it may occur before its harvest starting with a lesion that creates an avenue for pathogens to penetrate the fruit. It is most common for the affected fruit area to turn brown in color indicating the contamination of Erwina or black indicating B. theobromae. Other symptoms associated with the presence of these pathogens include, softening of the pod tissue accompanied by a pungent odour or waterly. [ Cole.1980 ].
Apart from the specie of telfairia occidentalis commonly known as fluted pumpkin (ugu), there are two other species; telfairia betasii; a specie which is rare and not cultivated telfairia pedata  (oyster or queen’s nut); a woody and herbaceous specie, dioecious vine which bear squash like fruit that contains oily seeds. It is usually used as ornamental plant [ Akoroda.1990].
USES/IMPORTANCE
The young edible shoots and leave together contain 85% moisture, 11% crude protein, 25% carbohydrate, 3.0% fat, 11%ash and high content of different essential nutrients such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, sodium and phosphorus. It is a tropical vine grown mainly for the leave which constitutes an important component of the diet of many people. The leave is used for soup and herbal medicine. It is important for its seed which is rich in protein and fat and can be eaten whole by boiling or made into fermented porridge. [Nwanna.1991].
The leaves are rich source of protein, oil, vitamins and minerals which nourishes, protects and heal the body. Due to the richness of the leave in iron, it is used herbally as blood tonic, to control sudden attack of
convulsion and malaria. The crop provides an appreciable cash income to a small sale farmer. The leave also have great antioxidant capacity which help in restoring damaged cells and slowing aging process. It contains a lot of other phyto nutrients which reduce heart disease and cancers. [Bjorklund.1995].
Some of the constraints associated with the cultivation of fluted pumpkin include:
T. occidentalis will not yield good produce if not supplied with adequate water.
The price is inflated during the dry season as a result of stress undergone by the farmers for it to strive well during the dry season.
The root part is known to be a potent human poison and so should not be consumed.
The sex of the fluted pumpkin is difficult to recognize until after flowering which takes about four months after planting. [Ajibade,etal.2006].
Plant toxin is a major problem in the society today especially in the aspect of vegetables because they provide us with mineral nutrients, antioxidants, anti-inflamatories and phyto nutrients. Plant toxins are controlled by factors related t to the plant itself intrinsic factors and also the environment where the plant is grown extrinsic factors.
Type of soil is a major factor in the fluted pumpkin (ugu) leave toxicity as high humid soil favors the toxic potential because it grows better in low humid soil where ventilation takes place. Human activities such as the type of manure applied in the cultivation because mineral manure (eg Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium –NPK fertilizer) favors heavy metals content of the plant. Pesticides (herbicides and insecticides) used in the control of weeds and insects are contributing factors to the leave toxicity.
Toxins in the fluted pumpkin (ugu) leave can lead to visible challenges. The heavy metals lead, mercury, cadmium, nickel and silver and anti-nutritional factors (such as Saponin, tannin, alkaloid and oxalate).
Controlling/reducing the toxic rate of toxins in the pumpkin leave is obtained by taking the necessary measure such as avoiding the much use
of inorganic manure in its cultivation and the application of pesticides.[Davidson,etal.2004]
1.2     AIM OF STUDY
To compare the toxic potential of fluted pumpkin (ugu) cultivated with inorganic manure (Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium-NPK fertilizer) and organic manure animal waste.
1.3     SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The study have showcased that the fluted pumpkin leave good for  consumption is  the one cultivated with organic manure(animal waste) as its toxic potential is low. The study also exposed that fluted pumpkin leave cultivated with inorganic manure (Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium –NPK fertilizer) has high content of heavy metal (Nickel, chromium and lead) and anti-nutrient (Saponin and alkaloids) than the one cultivated with animal manure.
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Many pumpkin leave sold in the market today are cultivated with the inorganic manure (NPK).
Toxins such as Saponin, alkaloid, nickel, chromium and lead derived from the vegetable when consumed are caused by the effect of the fertilizer on the leave.
1.5 LIMITATION OF STUDY
As a result of time factor, the study area constrained to within the stipulated time limit. Due to this fact, this study was limited to only pumpkin leave cultivated with NPK and that cultivated with animal manure gotten from Gabon village (a farm settlement in Emene) and UNN (University of Nigeria Nsuka) both at Enugu  State, Nigeria.
 1.6 HYPOTHESIS
HO: Fluted pumpkin (ugu) telfairia occidentalis leave cultivated with the inorganic manure nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer have more toxic potential.
H1: Fluted pumpkin (ugu) telfairia occidentalis leave cultivated with organic manure (animal waste) have more toxic potential.

COMPARATIVE STUDY/ANALYSIS OF TOXICOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF FLUTED PUMPKIN LEAVE (UGU) TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS CULTIVATED WITH NPK FERTILIZER AND ANIMAL MANURE

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Type Project
Department Science Lab Technology
Project ID SLT0163
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 52 Pages
Methodology Scientific
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Science Lab Technology
    Project ID SLT0163
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 52 Pages
    Methodology Scientific
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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