COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Lonchocarpus cyanescens (ELU) AND Dialium guineense (ICHEKU) ON THE LIPID PROFILE OF STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS ABSTRACT This study was carried out to determine the effect of
ethanoic extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens and Dialium guineense on the
lipid profile of streptozotocin induced albino rat. The rats were
randomly separated into six groups of five rats each in different cages
as follows Group A: rats orally administered 200mg/kg body weight of D.
guineense extract daily (normal control). Group B: induced
streptozotocin diabetic rats and 200mg/kg body weight of D. guineense
extract daily. Group C: rats orally administered 200mg/kg body weight of
L. cyanescens extract daily (normal control). Group D: induced
streptozotocin diabetic rats and 200mg/kg body weight of L. cyanescens
extract daily Group E: induced streptozotocin diabetic rats administered
5mg/kg body weight of gliben clemide daily (positive control). Group F:
rats fed on feed and water only (standard control). All the groups have
free access to feed and drinking water while the rat feed use in the
study is the growers mash of vital feed limited, Jos, Plateau State,
Nigeria. The body weight of the rats were taken at weekly intervals with
electronic weighing balance, while the experiment lasted for 28 days.
The study lasted for four weeks. From the result of the analysis it was
observed that the weight of the induced rats administered with extracts
of L. cyanescens and D. guineense have a significant increase in weight
and a significant decrease (P˂0.05) in blood glucose level. The result
of the serum lipid profile shows no significant effect on both the
control and the group administered with L. cyanescens and D. guineense.
In diabetic conditions, there is increase in blood glucose level which
is usually accompanied by an increase in plasma cholesterol, TAGs, LDL
and decrease in HDL. Under normal conditions insulin activates the
enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which hydrolyzes triglycerides. However, from
the result of the study, ethanoic extract of L. cyanescens and D.
guineense show no significant antihyperglycaemic activities on the
streptozotocin induced albino rat. TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Study 1.2 Aim and Objective of the Study 1.3 Specific Objective of the Study 1.4 Problem Statement CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Description of Lonchocarpus cyanescens 2.2 Taxonomy of Lonchocarpus cyanescens 2.3 Ecology, Growth and development of Lonchocarpus cyanescens 2.4 Origin and Geographic Distribution of Lonchocarpus cyanescens 2.5 Uses of Lonchocarpus cyanescens 2.6 Chemical Properties of Lonchocarpus cyanescens 2.7 Botanic Description of Dialium guineense 2.8 Taxonomy of Dialium guineense 2.9 Ecology and Distribution of Dialium guineense 2.10 Uses of Dialium guineense 2.11 Health Benefits of Dialium guineense 2.12 Chemical Composition of Dialium guineense 2.14 Overview of Diabetes 2.15 Mechanism of Diabetes Occurrence 2.20 Lipid profile in diabtes CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS ANDMETHOD 3.1 Material 3.1.1 Plant Materials 3.1.2 Equipment 3.1.3 Chemical and Reagent 3.2 Method 3.2.1 Plants Sample Collection 3.2.2 Extraction of Plant Materials 3.2.3 Blood Glucose Determination 3.2.4 Experimental Design 3.2.5 Collection of Blood Sample from animals for Biochemical Analysis 3.3 Blood Glucose Level 3.4 Serum Lipid Profile 3.5 Statistical Analysis CHAPTER FOUR RESULT PRESENTATION 4.1 Mean Weight of the Rat 4.2 Result of the Glucose Level Result of the Serum Lipid Profile CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 5.1 Discussion 5.2 Conclusion 5.3 Recommendation Reference LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: detached part of Lonchocarpus cyanescens Figure 2: detached part of Dialium guineense
LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Mean Weight of the Rat Table 2: Glucose Level Table 3: Serum Lipid Profile ABBREVIATIONS HDL = High density lipoproteins VLDL = very low density lipoproptein LDL = low density lipoproptein SPSS = Statistical Package for Social Science TAG = Triglycerides CHOL = Cholesterol DM = Diabetes Melitus CAD = Coronary Artery Disease CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study Diabetes is a disorder of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism and can represent an absolute insulin deficiency, impaired release of insulin by the pancreatic β cells, inadequate or defective insulin receptors, or production of inactive insulin. Diabetes mellitus can be classified into two main types, type 1 and type 2, with type 1 resulting from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and requires one to be injected with insulin. Type 2 diabetes mellitus describes a condition of fasting hyperglycemia that occurs despite the availability of insulin (Cooke and Plotnick, 2008). Diabetes mellitus is a major challenge for health care systems around the world (González-Villalpando et al., 2008). Clinically, diabetes mellitus is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Currently, more than 150 million people worldwide are suffering from this disease and it is expected that the number of them reaches 366 million in 2030 (Wild et al., 2014). Insulin deficiency causes higher metabolization of free fatty acid and can cause disorder in lipid metabolism. The lipid abnormalities are prevalent in diabetes mellitus because insulin resistance or deficiency affects key enzymes and pathways in lipid metabolism (Taskinen, 2012). Micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, occur due to chronic uncontrolled hyperglycemia in diabetics (Folli et al., 2011). It has been proposed that the composition of lipid particles in diabetic dyslipidemia is more atherogenic than other types of dyslipidemia. In diabetes the associated hyperglycemia, obesity and insulin changes highly accelerate the progression to atherosclerosis (Regmi et al., 2009). There is evidence that each of these dyslipidemic features is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between LDL size or density and coronary artery disease (CAD) (Pierre et al., 2013). Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human diseases and offer a new source of biologically active chemical compounds. Medicinal plants are the richest bio-resources of drugs of traditional medicinal systems, modern medicines, nutraceuticals, food supplements and folk medicines (Muhammad, 2015). Plant like Dialium guineese and Lonchocarpus cyanescens has been reported to possess both medicinal and nutritional properties capable of anit-diabetic effect (Feng et al., 2011). Velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense) is a woody plant that occurs in the rain forest region of West Africa. It grows up to 15m high with dark green glossy leaves, each measuring 6cm to 8cm long and 2.5cm wide at the widest part of the leaf. The bark, roots and leaves of Dialium guineense has been reported to have medicinal properties and are used for the treatment of variety of health problems. The fruits of the plant are chewed by most women in Southeastern Nigeria to improve lactation and check genital infection. The leaves and stem bark are also used as folklore remedies for the treatment of infections such as diarrhoea, severe cough, bronchitis, wound, stomachaches, malaria, fever, jaundice, ulcer and diabetes. The flour of Dialium guineense pulp can be incorporated in infant foods to enhance appetite and provide remedy for the problem of scurvy and micro nutrient deficiencies. Extracts from Dialium guineense plants have been shown to possess both anti-mutagenic and molluscicidal activities (Adewuyi et al., 2012). Lonchocarpus cyanescens also known as “ALU” is a deciduous scan dent shrub. The plant has alternate leaves, flat fruits which are 1-5 seeded, oblong pod pointed at both ends. The aerial parts yield an indigo, which is a useful colourant for cloth dyeing in West Africa since ancient times. The plant is utilized in traditional medicine, bioactivity effects of Lonchocarpus cyanescens have been demonstrated in its anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, antidiabetic and its relief on ulcer. It has some additional pharmacological properties including antiviral, antifungal, anti-protozoal, and antibacterial activities (Iwu and Anyanwu, 2012).
1.2 Aim of the Study The aim of the research is to identify the effect of ethanoic extract of Dialium guineese (icheku) and Lonchocarpus cyanescens (elu) on streptozotocin induced diabetes in order to determine its potency in management of diabetes. 1.3 Specific Objectives of the Study 1. To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Dialium guineese (icheku) and Lonchocarpus cyanescens (elu) on the lipid profile (high density lipoprotein, cholesterol and triglyceride) of streptozotocin induced diabetic albino rat. 2. To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens and Dialium guineense on blood glucose level of streptozotocin induced albino rat. 1.4 Statement of Problem Diabetes is a disorder that has affected many people in the world at large. It affects mostly the elderly ones. The drugs available for treatment and of management diabetes have shown varied and ambient side effects. It is a case to be concern with as it concerns development of drugs that have minimal side effect.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LONCHOCARPUS CYANESCENS (ELU) AND DIALIUM GUINEENSE (ICHEKU) ON THE LIPID PROFILE OF STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS
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