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OIL EXTRACTION FROM BREAD FRUIT SEED

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:45
  • Methodology:Scientific
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Science Lab Technology Project Topics & Materials)
     OIL EXTRACTION FROM BREAD FRUIT SEED
ABSTRACT

African breadfruit seeds were subjected to three processing methods – parboiling, cooking and toasting, and the raw was used as control. The purpose of this research was to extract the oil from the seed and to determine the effect of processing on the oil physicchemical properties showed that the colour of the oil varied from golden yellow to brownish yellow with specific gravity varying between 0.802g/cm3 and 0.813g/cm3. Percentage yield of oil was 6.14% for raw extract, 6.62% for parboiled extract, 7.56% for toasted extract and 5.01% for cooked extract. Acid, peroxide and saponification value for oil extracted from the raw seed varied with the processed samples value. The volatile fatty acid (VFA), also known as short chain fatty acid (SCFA) found inherent in varying concentration, were formic, acetc, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovateric, vateric, isocarproic, hexonic and heptanoic acid. Overall results prove that heat results increases in the VFA concentration of the processed oil.  
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
1.0    Background of study
Extraction otherwise called leaching is the preferential solution of one or more constituents of a solid mixture by contact with a liquid solvent (steven, et al 2007). This unit operation in some chemical industrial, have been given many names depending to some extent upon the technique used for carrying out extraction of oil from bread fruit seed and can be carried out using any of the two solid-liquid extraction methods namely mechanical extraction method or the use of solvent (which is called mass transfer method). The yield of the second method is higher but contains more impurities than the first method and it require another unit operation in purifying it better.
    The success of an extraction and the technique to be used will vary frequently depending upon any prior treatment which may be given to the solid. In some instance, small particles of the soluble materials are completely surrounded by a matrix of insoluble matter. According to wells, (2000), the solvent must then diffuse into the mass and the resulting solution must diffuse out before a separation can result. Crushing and grinding of such solids will greatly alliterate the leaching action, since then the soluble portions are made more accessible to the solvent.
    Seeds like breadfruit seeds are cellular in structure and the natural, products to be leached from these materials are usually found inside the cells if the cell walls remains intact upon exposure to a suitable solvent the leaching involves osmotic passage of the solute through the cell walls. This may be slow but is impractical and sometimes undesirable to gurid the material small enough to release the content of individual cells.
    Oil constitutes a well defined class of neutral organic substance, which are essential constituents of all forms of plant and animal life. They are soluble  in organic solvents but not in water. Commercial oils are however from a relatively few number of the plants and animals kingdom. They are primarily a product of agriculture although, this is also a considerably production from uncultirated tropical plants and from mature animals. Oil can be grouped into edible and non-edible depending on the amount of unspecified matters and impurities. Owing to the first fact that the use of oil from seed crops as a major raw materials has increased in recent years. There has been the need for extended and numerous research works based on the extraction of this oil from its seeds as economically efficiently as possible (Mashaghi, et al, 2013).
    The only possible way of obtaining large quantity of oil from plant material is by extraction and this could best be achieved using leaching process. This process can be accomplished by a variety of ways but as might be expected its efficiency depends to an extent on obtaining intimate contact between the liquid solvent and the solid containing the solute.
    The types of solvent available for leaching includes n-hexane, petroleum either, benzene, ethyl ether etc which are high petroleum fractions the choice of a solvent for extraction is a function of its volatility and relative volatility for easy separation by distillation, using rotary evaporator or the soxhlet extractor. Breadfruit oil is used primarily in homes for cooking and also as a raw material for the production of other useful products.
1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The aim of this research work is to extract oil from breadfruit seed using solvent. To determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil extract.
    To compare the yield of breadfruit oil from different solvent
    To find out the nutritional value and medicinal value of the oil through theoretical view.
1.2 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope off this work covers the extraction of oil from breadfruit seed and to compare it to standard.
1.3 Statement Of Problem
    Since it has been found that most of the extracted oil contains impurities and can cause effect when used on a product or consumed. The problem lies on the how to extract oil from breadfruit seed using the solvent method (ie the use of solvent such as n-hexane). The financial aspect of the commercially sold ones also posed a problem but our concern lieson producing one with cheaper cost.
1.4 Hypothesis
    At the end of the research work, the oil obtained was found to be less contaminated with impurities and its cost was limited to that of the commercially sold ones.

OIL EXTRACTION FROM BREAD FRUIT SEED

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Details

Type Project
Department Science Lab Technology
Project ID SLT0152
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 45 Pages
Methodology Scientific
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Science Lab Technology
    Project ID SLT0152
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 45 Pages
    Methodology Scientific
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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