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THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICATED SOAPS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FROM WOUND INFECTIONS

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:58
  • Methodology:Scientific
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Science Lab Technology Project Topics & Materials)
THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICATED SOAPS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FROM WOUND INFECTIONS
ABSTRACT

The antibacterial activity of three types of medicated soaps on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infections samples were collected from fifty individual with wound infection within the age range of 9-73 years. Swabsticks were used to collect specimens from wound infection. Each swabstick was streaked separately over plates of nutrient   and MacConkey agar and later incubated at 370C. Out of the fifty (50) individuals sampled 25(50%) were mostly infected with Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas aeruginsa (22%) Staphylococcus epidermis (10%) least by Escherichia coli 6 (12%). The organisms occur within the age range 9-13 years with 8 (16%) followed by 14-18 years 4 (8%) next by the age range of 19-23 years 3(6%) followed by 24-28 years with 2 (4%) and the least in the age range are 29-33, 34-38, 39-43, 44-48, 49-53, 54-58, 64-68 with 1(2%) each while there was no isolation in the age range 69-73. The study also revealed that all the Staphylococcus aureus isolated were sensitive to the three medicated soaps. The zone of inhibition was highest in Asepso medicated soap with 12.92mm followed by Tetmosol medicated soap with 11.2mm and least in Carat medicated soap with 10.56mm. Also the Staphylococcus aureus isolated were also sensitive to the commercial antibiotics used as couplers zones of inhibition was highest in ampiclox with 12.8mm followed by flucloxacillin with 12.04mm and the least in penicillin with 10.4mm. There was a close relationship in the zones of inhibition between the three medicated soaps and the commercial antibiotics used as controls. The result showed that medicated soaps were effective against Staphylococcus aureus involved in wound infection in humans and are comparable to commercial antibiotics. Therefore, medicated soap can be used in cleaning the skin particularly in the affected part of the skin during the time one has hurt or cut on the skin.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction                          
Aims and objectives                   
Statement of the problem                 
Hypothesis                              
Justification of the study                  
Limitation Of The Study                                  
CHAPTER TWO
2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW                 
Medical relevance of antimicrobial soap        
Normal skin mircobiota and soap            
CHAPTER THREE
3.0    MATERIALS AND METHODS                 
Materials (see appendix)                        
Methods                                    
Sterilization                                
Collection of soap samples                 
Preparation of culture media                
 Collection of bacterial organisms from wound
infection                                
     Isolation of staphylococcus aureus and other
organisms from wound infection using streak
plate technique.                       
  Microbial count, gram stain and
microscopic examination                     
 Biochemical test for identification  of isolate        
 Disc preparation                            
  Preparation of soap solution and soaking of the
discs with the soap.                           
Antibacterial activity of the three medicated soaps
and three antibiotics as control drugs on
Staphylococcus aureus isolated                 
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0    RESULT                               
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0    DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIO  
Discussion                               
Conclusion                            
Recommendations                      
References                          
Appendix                           
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1:    Age distribution number sampled as well
 as percentages with Staphylococcus aureus
and other organisms                 
Table 2:    Age distribution as well as percentage of
each isolated organisms          
Table 3:    Preliminary identification of bacterial isolates   
Table 4:    Biochemical test carried out for
identification of bacterial isolates   
Table 5:    Sensitivity test using three medicated soap
and three antibiotics indicating their
zones of inhibition.                   

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The skin flora, more properly referred to as the skin microbiota, are the microorganisms which reside on the skin. Most research has been upon those that reside upon the 2 square metres of human skin, cf. the human microbiome. The skin microbiome refer to their genomes. Many of them are bacteria of which there are around 1000 species upon human skin from 19 phyla. Most are found in the superficial layers of the epidermis and the upper parts of hair follicles (Grice et al., 2009).
Skin flora is usually non-pathogenic, and either commensal (are not harmful to their host) or mutualistic (offer a benefit). The benefits bacteria can offer include preventing transient pathogenic organisms from colonizing the skin surface, either by competing for nutrients, secreting chemicals against them, or stimulating the skin's immune system.[3] However, resident microbes can cause skin diseases and enter the blood system, creating life-threatening diseases, particularly in immunosuppressed people.
A major non-human skin flora is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a chytrid and non-hyphal zoosporic fungus that causes chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease thought to be responsible for the decline in amphibian populations (Callewaert et al., 2013).
Staphylococcus epidermidis one of roughly a thousand bacteria bas been radically changed by the use of 16s ribosomal RNA to identify bacterial species present on skin samples direct from their generic species present on skin smaples direct from their genetic material. Previously such identification had depended upon microbiological culture upon which many varieties of bacteria did not grow and so were hidden to science.
Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were thought from cultural based research to be dominant. However 16S ribosomal RNA research finds that while common, these species make up only 5% of skin bacteria.[4] However, skin variety provides a rich and diverse habitat for bacteria. Most come from four phyla: Actinobacteria (51.8%), Firmicutes (24.4%), Proteobacteria (16.5%), and Bacteroidetes (6.3%) (Ara et al., 2006)ecology of the 20 sites on the skin studied in the Human Microbiome Project
There are three main ecological areas: sebaceous, moist, and dry. Propionibacteria and Staphylococci species were the main species in sebaceous areas. In moist places on the body Corynebacteria together with Staphylococci dominate. In dry areas, there is a mixture of species but b-Proteobacteria and Flavobacteriales are dominant. Ecologically, sebaceous areas had greater species richness than moist and dry one. The areas with least similarity between people in species were the spaces between fingers, the spaces between toes, axillae, and umbilical cord stump. Most similarly were beside the nostril, nares (inside the nostril), and on the back (Schauber and Gallo, 2008)
Soaps and other cleansing agents have been around for quite a long time. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. Bacteria are very diverse and present in soil, water, sewage and on human body and are of great importance with reference to health (Johnson et al., 2002). In 1961 the U.S public Health service recommendation directed that personnel wash their hands with soap and water for 1 to 2 minutes before and after client contact. The antibacterial soaps can remove 65 to 85% bacteria from human skin (Blaser, 2006). Although fats and oils are general ingredients of soaps but some detergent additives enhance the antibacterial activities of soaps (Durbise et al., 2012).
Transient bacteria are deposited on the skin surface from environmental sources and cause skin infections. Examples of such bacteria are Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Fluit et al., 2001) and Staphylococcus aureus (Higaki et al., 2000). The importance of hand washing is more crucial when it is associated to health care workers because of possible cross contaminating of bacteria that may be pathogenic or opportunistic (Richards et al., 1999). Hand hygiene and prevention of infection through the use of medicated soaps has been well recognized. A large number of chemical compounds have the ability to inhibit the growth and metabolism of microorganisms or kill them. The number of chemicals is enormous, probably at least 10, 000 with 1,000 commonly used in the hospital and homes. Chemicals exist as solids, liquids and gases. Of the many groups of chemicals used to reduce or destroy microbes important groups include hydrogen, phenols, soaps, detergents, ammonia compounds, alcohols, heavy metals, acids and certain special compound. Disinfection, decontamination, antisepsis/sanitization and sterilization, just naming a few are terms that describe the process of cleaning by either soaps/detergents or other cleaning agents. Numerous cleaning agents are available in the market, which are presented in various forms with distinct formulation. Triclosan, trichlorocarbanilide and P-chloro-in-xylenol (PCMX/Chloroxylenol) are the commonly used anti-bacterials in medicated soaps. These are generally only contained at preservation level unless the product is clearly marked as antibacterial, antiseptic, or germicidal (Redoules et al., 2012).
Scrubbing body or hands, particularly with soaps is the first of defense against bacteria and other pathogens that can cause colds the Flu, skin infection and even deadly communicable diseases (Abrahamsson et al., 1996). Conceptually, many people consider that an antimicrobial portion of soaps is effective at preventing communicable disease. But now researchers highlight that too much of it can have the opposite effect spreading disease/infection instead of preventing them (Poole, 2002). Over-utilization of medicated rendering might result in antimicrobial resistance and even rendering an individual more vulnerable to microbial attacks such as opportunistic skin infections (White and McDermolt, 2001).
Unfortunately, in the long run may affect the consumers, because overuse of these agents can ascribe to the emergence of drug, resistant micro organisms. This research work carried out in 2004 was aimed at determining the antibacterial activities of some commonly used medicated soaps in selected human pathogens.
Aims and Objectives of the Study
1.    To isolate bacteria flora from the skin
1.    To determine the antibacterial activity of five medicated soap(Isol, Delta, Dettol, Safeguard and Tetmosol) on the bacteria of the skin
Statement of Problem
This work shows that medicated soaps have germidical substances like chloroxylenol pothaium, mercuric idide trichlorocarberihide etc. incorporated into them in order to creat their antibacterial activity. It is therefore necessary to investigate the antibacterial activity of five medicated soap (safeguard, Dettol, Tetmosol and Isol) on the bacteria flora of the skin
Hypotheses
•    Medicated soaps have antibacterial activity
•    Medicated soaps have no antibacterial activity.
Justification of the Study
The result of the project work will indicate the antibacterial activity of medicated soap and the effect on the skin flora
Limitation of the Study
The study is limited to the antibacterial activity of five medicated soap (safeguard, Delta, Dettol, and Tetmosol, ISOL soap) on the bacteria flora of the skin

THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICATED SOAPS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FROM WOUND INFECTIONS

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Details

Type Project
Department Science Lab Technology
Project ID SLT0150
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 58 Pages
Methodology Scientific
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Science Lab Technology
    Project ID SLT0150
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 58 Pages
    Methodology Scientific
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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