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INFLUENCE OF CULTURE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ENUGU STATE

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:89
  • Methodology:Chi Square
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Business Administration and Management Project Topics & Materials)
INFLUENCE OF CULTURE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ENUGU STATE
(A STUDY OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN ENUGU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
ABSTRACT
 This research work examined influence of culture and socio-economic factors on female entrepreneurship in Enugu state. A study of women entrepreneurs in Enugu North Local Government Area. The objectives of the study were to: determine the effect of culture and socio-economic factors on female entrepreneurs, ascertain the challenges facing female entrepreneurs in Enugu North Local Government Area, examine the roles of government in assisting female entrepreneurs towards achieving wealth creation and find out prospects of female entrepreneurs in Enugu north Local Government Area. The survey research design was adopted. In this research. A sample size of 114 was obtained from the total population of 160 using taro Yamane’s formula. Data was collected using both primary and secondary sources. The hypotheses were tested using the chi-square statistical tool. The data collected was presented in tables using frequencies and percentages. The research findings showed that there are effects of culture and socio-economic factors on female entrepreneurs in Enugu North Local Government Area, there are challenges facing female entrepreneurs in Enugu North Local Government Area, Government have not significantly assisted female entrepreneurs in wealth creation In Enugu North Local Government Area, there are prospects of female entrepreneurs in Enugu North Local Government Area. The researcher concluded that culture and socio-economic factors have a big influence on women entrepreneurship. It was recommended that there should be improvement in the condition of female entrepreneurs and government should provide infrastructural facilities such as water, electricity and potable roads to reduce cost of doing business in Nigeria.                      
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background of the Study                    
1.2     Statement of the Problem                    
1.3     Objectives of the Study                     
1.4     Research Questions                        
1.5     Statement of Hypotheses                     
1.6     Significance of the Study                    
1.7    Scope of the Study                         
1.8     Limitations of the Study                    
1.9    Operational definition of terms                 
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1    Conceptual Framework of the Study            
2.1.1 Concept of Culture                        
2.1.2 Characteristics of Culture                
2.1.3 The Cultural Factors That Exist in the Business
    Environment in Nigeria                    
2.1.4 Concept of Entrepreneurship                
2.1.5 Characteristics of Female Entrepreneur        
2.1.6 Nigerian Perspective on Female Entrepreneurs    
2.1.7 Status of Female Entrepreneurship            
2.1.8     Socio-cultural Aspect of Entrepreneurship    
2.1.9     Challenges Facing Female Entrepreneurs            
2.1.10 Role of Government in Assisting Female     
    Entrepreneurs and Wealth Creation                
2.1.11 Prospects of Female Entrepreneurship in
Nigeria                                
2.2     Theoretical Framework of the Study            
2.2.1 Economic Theory                        
2.2.2 Resource Based Theory                    
2.2.3 Psychological Theory                    
2.2.4 Sociological/ Anthropological Theory        
2.2.5 Opportunity –Based Theory                 
2.3     Empirical Review                         
2.3.1 The Effect of Culture and Socio-Economic
Factors on Female Entrepreneurship        
2.3.2 The Challenges Facing Female
Entrepreneurship in Nigeria                 
2.3.3 The Roles of Government in Assisting Female
 Entrepreneurs Towards Achieving Wealth
Creation                                
2.3.4 Prospects of Female Entrepreneurs towards
Achieving Wealth Creation                     
2.4 Summary of Review of Related Literature        
2.5 Gap in the Review of Related Literature        
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1    Research Design                        
3.2    Sources of Data                        
3.2.1    Primary Sources                        
3.2.2 Secondary Sources                        
3.3    Area of the Study                        
3.4     Population of the Study                    
3.5    Sample Size Determination                 
3.6     Instruments for Data Collection            
3.7    Validity of the Instrument                 
3.8    Reliability of the Instrument                
3.9     Method of Data Presentation and Analysis    
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1    Data Presentation and Analysis             
4.2    Bio-Data                                
4.3     Data Relating To Research Questions        
4.3.1 Research Question One                    
4.3.2 Research Question Two                    
4.3.3 Research Question Three                    
4.3.4 Research Question Four                    
4.4    Test of Hypotheses                        
4.4.1 Test of Hypothesis One                    
4.4.2 Test of Hypothesis Two                    
4.4.3 Test of Hypothesis Three                    
4.4.4 Test of Hypothesis Four                    
4.5    Discussion of Findings                     
4.5.1 Discussion Based on Hypothesis One        
4.5.2: Discussion Based on Hypothesis Two        
4.5.3: Discussion Based on Hypothesis Three        
4.5.4: Discussion Based on Hypothesis Four        
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1    Summary of Findings                     
5.2     Conclusion                             
5.3     Recommendations                         
5.4    Contribution to Knowledge                 
5.5     Suggestions for further Research            
List of References                         
Appendix    A                            
Appendix B                            
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study
In a society where women are under pressure to get married and raise babies, it has also become a norm that women roles should begin and end in the Kitchen with babies strapped to their backs (Iheakam: 2014). The Nigeria culture is currently a high masculine culture, it is characterized by such features as assertiveness, competitiveness and toughness (Fadahunsi, 2010), and this is easily portrayed in entrepreneurship in the country.
An entrepreneur is someone who build a business. An entrepreneur could also be an integrated person who has the foresight, is exceptional, resourceful and possesses leadership qualifies (Ihuegba, 2013). It is important to note that owning and running a small firm is not the same as starting an entrepreneurial venture. An entrepreneurial venture is an individual efforts that lead to the creation small and medium enterprise (SSMEs) and business venture. But SMEs simple represent firms or business in both small and medium (Lucky, 2012).
Female entrepreneurs in Enugu State have unique cultural and social economic challenges. Female entrepreneur who lives are organized. Female entrepreneur who lives are organized ground their businesses are largely domestic entrepreneur, these are women who have strong belief in traditional female roles and have low connection to entrepreneurs in Nigeria fall willing this category (Ukona, 2011) other women possess dual features, are they have characteristic such as innovativeness adaptability, creativity, strength as well as the ability to quickly think and reason (Adeola, 2014).  There seem to be a wide gap or difference as relates to entrepreneurship between men and women.  As woman are believed to have a lower propensity to entrepreneurship when compared to their male counterpart (Garba, 2015).  This gap is due to cultural belief in Nigeria that a woman function is to raise children instead of pursuing other opportunities (Garba, 2015). Such opportunities include entrepreneurship education or other training available to women (Ihugba, 2013).
Even where women do manage to develop and economic venture, several factors limit the success of female entrepreneur in Enugu including socio-economic challenges such as domestic issues, financial constraints, lack of access to proper business development resources and cultural belief about proper gender role (Adeola, 2014).
Other barriers include lack of self-confidence male controlled homes that discouraged female empowerment and non-traditional roles (Ademoki, 2013). Additionally, lack essential personal skills and traits required to start a business which are perceived to masculine, are influencing the economic.
Development of small/scale female entrepreneurs in Enugu (Ademokun, 2012). The issues women entrepreneur in Nigeria faced are manifold for example, poverty and unemployed appear to be gender because of inadequate financial resources, unfit opportunities and limited access to education that in turn affect women choice of profession (Wosowei, 2012).  Another form of constraint includes their roles as mother and wives, as that does not allow for extra time that could be dedicated to training and skills acquisition (Ukonu, 2011). Women owned businesses are not economically developed as men counterpart in Nigeria (Ekpe, 2014).  This lack of economic development is due to institutional barriers placed on women which do not allow them to participate fully in economic empowerment programs particularly, through trade (Ekpe, 2014). The majority of Nigeria business enterprise area in the area of sales of recharged phone card, fashion design, hairdressing and the selling of perishable and non-perishable food product (Ademokun 2012). Conversely, Ajayi (2012) noted that the three primary economic activities female entrepreneurs appear to be engaged in include service (57%), trading (28%) and agriculture (15%).
The role of entrepreneur as agent in the labour market for creation of employment, wealth creation, poverty alleviation and provision of resources has helped tremendously to increase the number of female-owned entrepreneur ventures in the world.  The emergence of the private sector as the major player in the industrial development of many countries has also improved female access in employment opportunities as wage workers because of their family responsibilities as wage workers because of their family responsibilities (Jostane, 2015). Also, female entrepreneurs is influenced by many complicated factors which includes, social, economical, cultural, and physiological prevailing everywhere in the society. Generally, women opt for micro-enterprise than major enterprise because of certain unavoidable factors like limited capacity, low level of confidence, little access to technical information, poor market condition, less access to capital.
It is against this backdrop that the researcher has decided to carry out a research on the influence of culture and socio-economic factor on female entrepreneurship in Enugu state with a special focus of Enugu North.
1.2    Statement of the Problem
Women play an in portent role in development of their families and communities economically. They are often plagued by socio-economic factors such as being in a low income household, poverty, are unemployed, have a lack of training an even are discriminated against through unfavourable laws, cultural tradition, family expectation. These women are unable to execute their entrepreneurial desire due to a culturally enforced reliance on their husband, partners, or relatives for financial support.
Based on the problem identified the researcher looked at the influence of culture and socio-economic factor on female entrepreneurship in Enugu State using woman entrepreneur in Enugu North.     
1.3    Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to examine the influence of culture and socio-economic factors on female entrepreneurship in Enugu State. However, the specific objectives included to:
i.    determine the degree of effect of culture and socio-economic factor on female entrepreneurship in Enugu North Local Government Area.
ii.    ascertain the challenges facing female entrepreneurship in Enugu North Local Government Area.
iii.    examine the roles of government in assisting female entrepreneurs towards achieving wealth creation in Enugu North Local Government Area.
iv.    find out the prospects of female  entrepreneurs  towards achieving wealth creation in Enugu North Local Government Area. 
1.4    Research Questions
The researcher drafted the following research questions from the aforementioned objectives.
1.    What are the effects of culture and socio-economic factors in female entrepreneurship in Enugu North Local Government Area?
2.    What are the challenges facing female entrepreneurs in Enugu North Local Government Area?
3.    What are the roles of government in assisting female entrepreneurs towards achieving wealth creation in Enugu North Local Government Area?
4.    What are the future prospects of female entrepreneurship towards achieving wealth creation in Enugu North Local Government Area?
1.5    Statement of Hypotheses
The following hypotheses guided the study.
Hypothesis One
H0:     Culture and socio-economic factors have no positive effect on female entrepreneurship in Enugu North Local Government Area.
Hypothesis Two
H0:     There are no challenges facing female entrepreneurs in Enugu North Local Government Area.
Hypothesis Three
H0:      Government have not significantly assisted female entrepreneurs towards achieving wealth creation in Enugu North Local Government Area.
Hypothesis Four
H0:     There are no future prospects of female entrepreneurs towards achieving wealth creation in Enugu North Local Government Area.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is significant to many people in many areas. In this light, the study is relevant because it seeks to provide entrepreneurial guideline and gender development procedure that would lead to effective attainment of organizational objectives.
To the female gender the study would serve as an eye opener in terms of discovering their entrepreneurial potential despite the influence of culture and socio-economic factors.  The conclusion can be used both in the evaluation of the current system concerning entrepreneurship as well as in the formation of new strategies in the entrepreneurship in tertiary education.
Moreover, the study would serve as a veritable source of information for individual, youth irrespective the gender and government, how to harvest the rich benefit entrepreneurship in the national building and security development.
Finally, it would further add to the existing literature in the field of entrepreneurship, the researcher (student) would benefit because the research is a pre-requisite for graduation.  The universities would benefit as the research work increase their data banks. The research work would serve as a reference material for further research and these would eventually provide solution to problems encountered by female   entrepreneurs.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The research work covered the influence of culture and socio-economic factors on female entrepreneurship in Enugu. Due to certain limitations, the study was narrowed to women entrepreneurs in Enugu North Local Government Area. The time scope is between 2015-2017.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The researcher encountered some impediments in the course of carrying out this research work. Among them are finance, time and uncooperative attitude of the respondents.
a.    Uncooperative Attitude of Respondents: One problem most significant is the unpredictable behaviour of persons met in the process of gathering information.  These persons met in the process of gathering acted in different manners in giving out information on the study. However, some were willing to part with some information while others were difficult and did not cooperate.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
In other to bring more clarity to the job, the following terms were defined.
Entrepreneur: An entrepreneur is defined as the innovating individual who initiates and nurtures to growth, a new and an ongoing business organization.
Entrepreneurial Skills: Entrepreneurial skill is defined as the potential and ability of an individual to initial and nurture a new business to growth, expertly.
Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurship is defined as the process of looking for and exploiting business opportunities for profit.
Small Scale Business: Small Scale Business are enterprise that were independently owned and operated, provided goods and services to consumer within a local market.
SMEs: Small and medium Enterprise.

INFLUENCE OF CULTURE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ENUGU STATE

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Details

Type Project
Department Business Administration and Management
Project ID BAM2941
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 89 Pages
Methodology Chi Square
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Business Administration and Management
    Project ID BAM2941
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 89 Pages
    Methodology Chi Square
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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