+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
info@grossarchive.com

ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:98
  • Methodology:Survey method
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Business Administration and Management Project Topics & Materials)
ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS
    (A STUDY OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN ENUGU STATE)
ABSTRACT
This research work examined “Economic Empowerment Of Female Entrepreneurs: Challenges And Prospect (A Study Of Women Entrepreneurs In Enugu State)” The objectives of the study include to: find out how lack of credit facilities affects female entrepreneurs in Enugu state, examine the relationship between skill acquisition and female entrepreneurship in Enugu State, ascertain the effect of fiscal policies on female entrepreneurs in Enugu State, determine the effect of women participation in decision making on female entrepreneurs in Enugu State.. The population of the study was 975 while the sample size of 284 was determined using the Taro Yamane’s formula. The data collected were presented in tables of frequencies and percentages using the five point likert scale. The hypotheses were tested using the chi-square distribution formula. The findings included that Lack of credit facilities affects female entrepreneurs in Enugu State, skill acquisition has a relationship with female entrepreneurship in Enugu State, fiscal policies have an effect on female entrepreneurs in Enugu State and women participation in decision making has an effect on female entrepreneurs in Enugu State. The researcher concluded that there are many challenges as well as prospects of economic empowerment of female entrepreneurs in Nigeria and it was recommended that Credit facilities should be given to female entrepreneurs in Nigeria,. Skill acquisition should be encouraged in our society as it has been confirmed that female entrepreneurs are known to have traits of success, fiscal policies should be formulated to encourage female entrepreneurs and government should allow women to participate in decision making.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background of the Study                        
1.2     Statement of the Problem                        
1.3     Objectives of the Study                         
1.4     Research Questions                            
1.5     Statement of Hypotheses                         
1.6     Significance of the Study                        
1.7    Scope of the Study                             
1.8    Limitations of the Study                        
1.9    Operational definition of terms                    
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1    Conceptual Framework                        
2.2     Theoretical Framework of the Study                
2.3    Empirical Review                              
2.4     Summary of Review of Related Literature            
2.5 Gap in the review of the related literature            
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1    Research Design                            
3.2    Sources of Data                            
3.2.1     Primary Sources                            
3.2.2 Secondary Sources                            
3.3    Area of the Study                            
3.4     Population of the Study                        
3.5    Sample Size Determination                     
3.6     Instruments for Data Collection                
3.7    Validity of the Instrument                     
3.8    Reliability of the Instrument                    
3.9     Method of Data Presentation and Analysis        
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1    Data Presentation and Analysis                 
4.2    Bio-Data                                    
4.3     Data Relating To Research Questions            
4.4    Test of Hypotheses                            
4.4.1 Test of Hypothesis One                        
4.4.2 Test of Hypothesis Two                        
4.4.3 Test of Hypothesis Three                        
4.4.4 Test of Hypothesis Four                        
4.5    Discussion of Findings                         
4.5.1 Discussion Based on Hypothesis One            
4.5.2: Discussion Based on Hypothesis Two            
4.5.3: Discussion Based on Hypothesis Three            
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1    Summary of Findings                         
5.2     Conclusion                                 
5.3     Recommendations                             
5.4    Contribution to Knowledge                     
5.5     Suggestions for further Research                
List of References                             
Appendix    A                                
Appendix    B                                 
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study
Historically, economic empowerment of female entrepreneurs in Nigeria could be traced back to the establishment of the Better life for rural women programme initiated by the late wife of former president of Nigeria, Mrs. Maryann Babangida. Economic empowerment is the capacity of women and men to participate in, contribute to and benefit from growth processes in ways which recognize the value of their contributions, respect their dignity and make it possible to negotiate a fairer distribution of the benefits of growth (Eyben, 2014). Economic empowerment increases women’s access to economic resources and opportunities including jobs, financial services property and other productive assets, skills development and market information.
    In a society where women are under pressure to get married and raise babies, it has also become a norm that women roles should begin and end in the kitchen with babies strapped to their back (Iheakam 2014). Women entrepreneurship in Nigeria is common in the informal sector and activities in this sector seen to be invisible, along with their contributions and needs.  Despite government programmes aimed at reaching entrepreneurs, women as a group are not considered for assistance. A major reason for this is that most of the enterprises women engage in, such as petty trading, dress making and hair dressing, food processing and small-scale business fall outside the census of production surveys. These surveys normally include enterprises employing 10 or more people (Soetan 2010).
    Due to harsh economic conditions and the need for families to have extra sources of income, entrepreneurship is now at the center of economic pursuit (Nehru, 2015). Despite this, one hardly finds women entrepreneurs. The few that practice entrepreneurship are usually handicapped and operate on a relatively lower scale than their male counterpart. Their businesses usually suffer especially when they are in their productive age of motherhood.
Furthermore, women entrepreneurs in Nigeria find it increasingly difficult to adjust themselves to the dual role they have to play as traditional house wives and compete with men in the field of business. Umoh (2013) asserts that working women are often tossed between home and work, and they experience mental conflicts as they are not able to devote the necessary amount of time and energy to their home and children and it is mostly difficult and sometimes impossible to carry on with the demands of their business.
Ademola (2012) posits that women entrepreneurial activities are not only a means for economic survival but also have positive social repercussion for the women themselves and their social environment. The growth of their business has also contributed to the global economy, and the economy, and the economy of their immediate communities and countries. They are the driving force in today’s modern economy. They shape and redefine the workplace, business networks, financial institution and culture.
Nigeria is a highly patriarchal society, where men dominate in all shperes of women’s lives (Oqundele, 2011). As in other male dominated societies, the social relations and activities of Nigerian women and men are governed by patriarchal systems of socialization and cultural practices, which favour the interest of men above those of women.  
Generally, the role of men and women in various environment varies widely. Certainly, in many societies, women do not enjoy party with men as participants in the economy. The extent to which they are allowed to participate in economic activities affects their drive to become entrepreneurs. Also values about family role for men and women affect entrepreneurial emergence. Values about family unit. This varies among culture. While in some societies and cultures the men are given the total role of bread winner and the women restricted to home keeping, in other societies, the bread winner role is home by both the men and women, thus allowing the women space to engage in entrepreneurial activities. It is based on this background that this research examined economic empowerment of female entrepreneurs challenges and prospects.   
1.2    Statement of the Problem
Women entrepreneurs encounter so many challenges in the process of entrepreneurship.  Among them are lack of credit faculties, cultural beliefs, gender factor, the inconsistent policies of the Nigerian government, poor state of the country’s infrastructure etc.
Potential female entrepreneurs in Nigeria, go through many hardships when trying to access credit facilities for their business. Though, there is a wide range of financial institution that offer business loansthey usually charge high interest rates, deterring  aspiring women entrepreneurs. For instance, major banks have pegged the lending rates to as much as 28%, which many female entrepreneurs cannot afford.
Furthermore, female entrepreneurs in Nigeria are often underestimated and overlooked and they are often hindered because of cultural barriers, such as male/ female role definitions that label women inherently inferior to men.
In addition, government inconsistent policies isAnother challenge facing women entrepreneurs in Nigeria. Most at times, government laws affecting entrepreneurship boils down to paying some dues female entrepreneurs, do not have the financial muscle to cope with these laws and this pose as a very big challenge.
1.3    Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to examine economic empowerment of female entrepreneurs: challenges and prospects, and sequel to the problems above, the specific objectives include
1.    To examine the effect of fund on female entrepreneurs in Enugu state.
2.    To examine the relationship between skill acquisition and female entrepreneurship in Enugu State.
3.    To ascertain the effect of fiscal policies on female entrepreneurs in Enugu State.
4.    To determine the effect of women participation in decision making on female entrepreneurs in Enugu State.
1.4    Research Questions
Based on the objectives of the study, the following research questions were raised.
1.    How does lack of fund affect female entrepreneurs in Enugu State?
2.    What is the relationship between skill acquisition and female entrepreneurship in Enugu State?
3.    What is the effect of fiscal policies on female entrepreneurs in Enugu State?
4.    What is the effect of women participation in decision making on female entrepreneurs in Enugu state?
1.5    Statement of Hypotheses
Based on the research questions, the following hypotheses were formulated
Hypotheses One
Ho:     Lack of fund does not affect female entrepreneurs in Enugu State
HI:     Lack of fund affects female entrepreneurs in Enugu State.
Hypothesis Two
Ho:  Skill acquisition does not have any relationship with female entrepreneurship in Enugu State
HI:     Skill acquisition has a relationship with female entrepreneurship in Enugu State.
Hypothesis Three
Ho:     Fiscal policies do not have any effect on female entrepreneurs in Enugu State
HI:     Fiscal policies have an effect on female entrepreneurs in Enugu State.
Hypothesis Four
Ho:     There are no positive effects of women participation in decision making on female entrepreneurs in Enugu State
HI:     There are positive effects of women participation in decision making on female entrepreneurs in Enugu State.
1.6    Significance of the Study
This research work will be beneficial to female entrepreneurs, government, the researcher, the university etc. female entrepreneurs in Enugu State will benefit from this research work, as the findings from this research work will help them become successful in their business endeavours. The government will benefit from this research work, as it will enhance economic development of Nigeria. The researcher will benefit, as the research work is a partial requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science (B.sc) Degree in Business Administration.The university will benefit, as the research work increases its data bank. Finally, the research work will serve as reference material for further research on this topic.
1.7    Scope of the Study
This research work covered how lack of credit facilities affects female entrepreneurs, the relationship between skill acquisition and female entrepreneurship the effect of fiscal policies on female entrepreneurs and the women participation in decision making on female entrepreneurs. This research work covered female entrepreneurs in Enugu Metropolis.
1.8    Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher had problems with collecting materials from the library and uncooperative attitude of the respondents. The researcher encountered problems with collecting materials from the library, as not all the materials requested was collected.
Furthermore, the respondents were economical with information. They refused to give out all the necessary information, as they thought the researcher was a government official.  
1.9    Operational Definition of Terms
Economic empowerment: This is the capacity of women in Enugu State to participate in, contribute to and benefit from growth processes in ways that recognize the value of their contributions and respect their dignity.
Women entrepreneurs: These are women in Enugu State who initiate, organize and run a business enterprise.



ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

Share This

Details

Type Project
Department Business Administration and Management
Project ID BAM2903
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 98 Pages
Methodology Survey method
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Business Administration and Management
    Project ID BAM2903
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 98 Pages
    Methodology Survey method
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    (A STUDY OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN ENUGU STATE) ABSTRACT This research work examined “Economic Empowerment Of Female Entrepreneurs: Challenges And Prospect (A Study Of Women Entrepreneurs In Enugu State)” The objectives of the study include to: find out how lack of credit... Continue Reading
    Abstract A popular slogan used in various association all over the country say “Unity and Progress” another says “Peace and Unity”. One thing stands out for these two slogans, and that is the fact that the actualization of one thing depends on the other. There... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The study assessed the role of female entrepreneurs in poverty alleviation in rural communities of Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. It specifically analysed the socioeconomic characteristics of women entrepreneurship and assessed the contribution of female-owned businesses to poverty alleviation in the study... Continue Reading
    : THE CASE STUDY OF AWKA SOUTH LOCAL GOVEERNMENT AREA IN ANAMBRA STATE,NIGERIA CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study Poverty is one of the main economic problems facing most countries in the world. There have been several strategies to tackle poverty in its... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The Study aimed at exposing the implications of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) cashless economy policy with a view to also unearthing the possible prospects and challenges it poses to the Nigeria economy. Analytically, this thesis, employs descriptive... Continue Reading
    INTRODUCTION The role of women in economic development cannot be understated. Jiggins (1989) notes that about 30 per cent of rural households in the world are headed by women, and that women contribute about 80 per cent of agricultural labour, produce almost 60 per cent of the food that is consumed by rural households and generate more than... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This study assessed the problems and challenges of female secretaries and achievement of organization efficiency in Ijebu-Ode Local Government area.  It employed descriptive approach of data gathering and analysis. Fifty (50) female secretaries were selected for the study. The non-parametric tool of chi-square was employed for the... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This project work is primarily designed to provide complete understanding of poultry farming as an economic tool commercial poultry farming is practiced by most rural households throughout the developing world; despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and... Continue Reading
    Abstract This study is aimed at finding out hoe ESBS Radio has helped in the economic empowerment of Agbani community and to find out the possible ways to improve the economic standard of the dwellers of Agbani community. This study was based on uses and gratification theory. The researcher consulted relevant literature to raise secondary data... Continue Reading
    Participatory communication has now become the generally accepted view of how communication should be used to pursue development interventions. However, despite the increasing number of development projects claiming to embrace participation and participatory communication, only few meet the standards of genuine participation. Through a qualitative... Continue Reading