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THE EFFECT OF THE LIBERIA CRISIS IN PARTICULAR AND THE LEADERSHIP ROLE PLAYED BY NIGERIA 1980-2003

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  • Chapters:4
  • Pages:59
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(International and Diplomatic Studies Project Topics & Materials)
THE EFFECT OF THE LIBERIA CRISIS IN PARTICULAR AND THE LEADERSHIP ROLE PLAYED BY NIGERIA 1980-2003
CHAPTER ONE
1.1    INTRODUCTION
    This research essay is in-depth appraisal of the case of Nigeria’s role as a regional leader in Africa. Nigeria was one of the seventeen 17th African nations that get their independence in 1960. On independence, she joined the common wealth and the United Nations. During the first five years of independence, Nigeria maintained close relation with the common wealth of nation in general and Britain in particular.
    During the early 1960s, she played a relatively hesitant and minimal role in international affairs not only because she was now in the international system but also because she was relatively poor and weak in almost every aspect. But since that late 1960s she has assumed a more vigorous pasture in world affairs largely as a result of the great political and economic changes that have taken place in the country since the oil boom that ensured in the 1970s.
    This was reflected in the number of her diplomatic mission which raised from six of December, 1960 to eighty-two in January 1980, a large number of any countries and perhaps more than any third world country has ever maintained abroad. In line this new of development, Nigeria has been playing a very significant role in Africa and her sub-region and the large international system. Professor Joseph Franker of the Oxford University England has aptly called Nigeria regional leader in the whole African as a continent.
    For a country or nation to be a regional leadership has to have certain potentials like certain roles or special responsibilities a government of a country perceives for it interrelation to state in a region with which if identifies. It proceeds to make her maintain the stand of a regional leader.
     A regional leader usually takes the bull by the horn in matters of tremendous importance in the region. According to our former prime minister Alhaji Tafawa Balewa, he said that “leadership is not assessed by more noise making. It is by our practical means of showing sympathy to the African nations that we would be highly worthy of emulation. It is wrong for us to be short of leadership over other of force ourselves on their just because of our size and population. The heading state must enjoy the mandate of others states to lead the system, if the former would benefit them.
    In spite of Nigeria’s rapid transformation and problem in the domestic and international system, Nigeria foreign policy, posture which interallia emphasize friendship and co-operation with nations, non-all-ignment decolonization, African development, the promotion of world peace and the defence of national sovereignty and territorial integrity. Africa became the centre peace of Nigeria external relations where by all other African nations are enjoying international recognition because of the connection Nigeria has in the international scone.
    Nigeria became heavily involved in negotiations over majority rule in Rhodesia and the independence of Narribia. Nigeria is the only West African country that is a number is also a number of the financial supporter of South Africa, Liberiation movement. Nigeria is also a member of  various international and regional organizations such as the economic community of West African State (ECOWAS) African Unity (AU) the United Nation (UN) the common wealth of nations and a member of the organizations of Islamic community (OIC) and some others that are too numerous to mention. Since 1970’s Nigeria has retained the chairmanship of UN committees on peace keeping operations, apartheid and racial discriminations.
    Nigeria’s foreign policy would be said to operate within three concentric circles. The inner most circle consist of Nigeria policy towards the large international system. Looking at Nigeria’s role briefly in West Africa, and African in general, one will note that Nigeria has contributed a lot of the enlistment of Africa as a content.
    The history of Nigeria’s initiative in the formation of a West African Economic Community dates back only to the middle of 1970, she has exhibited profound interest in the economic development and social well being of African states especially her closest neighbours of  the West Africa sub-region.
    In the regions, Nigeria foreign policy goals are closely lined to consideration prosecution. This led to the formation of ECOWAS the Nigeria government has on the whole continued to provide impetus for effectiveness.
    In the whole of African context, Nigeria contributed substantially to the founding of the organization of African unity in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in May 1963, nevertheless, Nigeria for sometime, played less of a leading role within the organization that the size and economic potentials of the country would seem to indicate. In 1963, the population of Nigeria’s was 22 percent of what of whole of Africa and it was widely felt it in Nigeria that the country should lead the AU. Since the formation of AU, Nigeria has been closely associated with all it’s effort to resolve differences and  disputes between African states. And between Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya. In most of the activities of the organizations, Nigeria has tended to take the lead, she has also had a much more positive role in  inter-African  relations generally.
    Nigeria’s role in the Liberian crisis is an evidence of her posture as a regional leader, so that when Samuel Doe came to meet the then head of state General Ibrahim Babagida now (retrieved) in Lagos, which he discussed some important issues with him he (General Ibrahim) did not hesitate to help him see that the crisis in Liberia ends on time. Due to the foreign policy posture of Nigeria in which one of it’s friendship with her neighbours and see that peace reign in sub-region. West Africa and the whole of Africa as a continent.
    This indispensable role of Nigeria no doubt was a land mark in stemming or nipping the crisis in the but, the Liberian crisis world have been another case entirely. It is the posture of Nigeria as a regional leader that stimulated the idea of peace keeping force in Liberia.
    This goes to emphasize the role of Nigeria in the Liberian crisis which is the centre peace of these research work.
1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    Liberia is one of the countries in West Africa and Africa as a whole that was not colonized, but the settlement  of American ex-slaves Liberia is sandwiched in between the Atlantic Ocean and the formerly French territory of Guinean and the Ivory Coast. It covers no more than 43,000 squares miles with the worst African forest belt ensuring a plentiful rainfall and many rivers drain from Guinea highlands across both countries, to the swampy coast. Monrovia the capital of Liberia was established in 1822.
    The city of Monrovia use to be a peaceful city and the citizen doing there  everyday activities, but as time went on, there was these problem of legitimacy which the government of Liberia faced. The late William R. Tolbert, which succeeded William V.S. Tuban the former president of Liberia faced this legitimacy crisis at its latter path. This led to the 1980 coup Detal which brought in president Samuel Doe to power.
    Prior to the coup d’etal which brought Samuel Doe to power the affair of Liberia was monopolized by American – Liberians whose root can be traced back to the slave trade era, booking back at the past president of Liberia, they are both America-Liberians. This brought the problem of legitimacy in which the other ethnic groups were not in support of the government in power. They are agitating for some another ethnic group to take over the affairs of government.
    On April 12, 1980 during the Monrovia rich that, some seventeen non-commissioned officer of the Liberia armed forces stormed the presidential Manson in Monrovia. They look over the rein of leadership from Dr. William Tolbert and in a summary trial, had him and thirteen of his minister executed.
    The group was led by a twenty eight year old master sergeant called Samuel Kenyon Doe. He has himself installed is head of state and chairman of the people redemption council. Thus began to decade of Samuel Doe rein terror.
    The generalissims, Samuel Doe ex-marter sergeant began his physical regime of well coflieured, well fed looks. Then, in a sudden best of confidence he announced plans on July 26, 1983 to return the country democracy.
    Following the plans for civil rule been announced,  many politicians had began to form parties. The only party that was of monomaneter. General Samuel Doe’s National Democratic Party of Liberia by the special Election Commission as at deadline of March 1, 1985. As Doe prepared for the October election of that years in between he killed, dismissed, imprisoned, exiled or charge with treason several of his mistakes and top aids. The year ended up with uprising. Thus shows that Doe’s government was no longer enjoying the legitimacy it was enjoying initially when he came to power.
    When Doe was sworn in as president of Liberia in 1986 after the election all internal oppositions had been effectively taken care of commander Doe left 20  plates. He removed the constitutional provision linking the president to two, six years term. He thus assured his expectancy in power-mass killings, abduction, destruction, confusion, tribal hatred, lack of food water and light, angry and pretests have conspired to make the last days of Doe atale of Woe.
    The people were no longer safe in their country, when the government was supposed to protect them, the reverse was the case. It shows the level at which the citizens were being fed up with Doe’s administration, from fan open field at capital by-pass 1 the center of the city, the crowd defined a heavy rainfall and begin their match, singing, charting, waving placards, trailed all one way too by pressmen, then destination was the executive mans the residence and office of Doe. The problem of legitimacy which the government of Samuel Doe facet caused the rebellion which had been toring inn Liberia to a peak December 24, 1990, Rebels came from out side Liberia to overthrow the government in power. Some of these rebels are the one that field Liberia into self exile when they called no longer bear the leadership bestowed them by Doe’s regime. As the rebel get into part of Monrovia, Doe know that things were vening against his government. He was accused of corruption, maltreatment, abduction, mispower, appropriation and all forms of mismanagement. The crisis really came to a worse situation when the rebel groups refused to allow Doe to remain in power.
    There were two forces that fought against them the forces of Samuel Doe. These are National partriate front of Liberia (N.P.F.L). the N.P.F.L was led by a forms civil right Mr. Yormie Johnson, a former member of Taylor’s rebel. Other group that does not belong to Doe’s tribe that is the mans and Gio tribes which have been at odds with Doe’s ethnic groups, the Krahn and the Mandingoes which were favoured by the Doe’s administration. The seal of this tribal divided in Liberian politics has been on for long but was sown in the 1985 ill fated attempt by qutwonkap himself of Gio from the Nimba country of Gio’s and Mano’s. when the attack eventually failed, Doe’s troops dominated by the people from his Krahn tribes had responded by killing hundreds of Gio and Mano’s soldiers and civilian. This is the Nimba country home of the Gio’s and man’s as well as the Manchi goese has neigh forgotten non forgiven.
    The fight or crisis rattor appears to be revealed around the problem of legitimacy.
    This obvious fat account for the continual crisis standing from ethnic and ideology incompatibility even after the peace talk being monitored by ECOMOG.
1.3    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    The second source of data will be used, this involves the use materials that have already been written on the subject. They are text books. Journals, magazines, newspapers. Also relevant is the used of the internet as a source of information.
1.4    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
    This research will be related to the game theory analysis. Most people are either surprised at the suggestion that shows serious and important phenomenon as policies should be treated as such. The analogy seems almost related to game or sacrilegious in so far as it implies a conceptual reduction of important and sensitive human, political and societal conflicts to more sporting act or rejection as game.
    John Huzinga (1872-1954) a distinguished philosopher (historian argued that human culture cannot be fully comprehended behavior plan acquire game like qualities.
    There are two forms of game through preliminary distinction commonly drew is subdivided into the pure-zero-sum game. In zero-sum game, it is the content between A and B it wick, B losses, just as it is in game chess. Each game ends with one player having a sore of one (1) and the other minus one (v) examples of real life situation relates to zero-some game is a military tactical situation in the objectives that one soiled seize is lost to the other or electoral between two candidate for a legislative sent.
    On the other hand the non zero-sum game is not exchasize to some extent that’s when one gains, the other must lose. The  sum of gains and losses does not necessarily sum up to zero.
    There is room in type of game for element of conflict and co-operations, in same time of level with equal margin and in alter cases one party mighty be slightly a head of the other with minimal, but non losses as to have the effort of the opposing side at zero, this is because there is reasonable understanding and co-operation between both parties doing in the interest of both.
    This is purely contrary to the working principle of the zero-sum game where each party is stiffly at each and others throat with the intention of one party wining and  gaining all credit and influence at state, because no co-operation and understanding is shown by either at the  contact. There is no denying the fact that the Liberian crisis cannot fully comprehended within the more analytical  framework of the game. But the patterns and process of the Liberian crisis undereliably maintain concrete name like characteristics.
    Therefore the application of analytical technique derived from game theory best aid us in the scientific understanding of the common suspect, more so as it is applied with the balanced intellectual requisite – the game theory is thus the most suitable frame work for the research.
    The zero-sum most aptly suits the analytical explanation of the interior crisis. In these stages, we found out that the rebel group of Charles Taylor and Yomic Johnson are fighting against the Samuel Doe forces. The rebel groups were engaged in a fore battle for a democratically elected government to see that Doe levels office. Theoretical relations to the zero-sum game, the Doe forces are one player in a game against Charles Taylor as the second a opposing player that context.
    In this game Doe’s forces is designated player, while Taylor is designated player II. The analysis of this point of zero-sum game is illustrated with figure is the table below.
Table 1
Player 1             player 11
Diet 5             Taylor – 5
    Doing by the rule of the zero in game, Taylor as eventual winner. This lakes all the credit and associated with prestige, while doe totally lost every thing at state.
    However, N – person- non-care sum gave is noves favourably disposed and more conclusive for the peace in the Liberian crisis. Thus is the ending show of between four warring faction in Liberian. Cviz: the late Doe’s forces NPFL and ECOMOG are visible and prominent in the current crisis in Liberia. The INPFC and Doe’s force had withered out of action and aligned its rickety and remnant force with ECOMOG.
    It is a basic that action of the four warring faction’s movement centre on the immediate and manifest desire of each to defeat the other and attain or political leadership. This is the zero-sum game analytical means that ECOMOG gains the NPFL losses via versa. The struggle for political leadership is again illustrated figure with the table below.
Table III
Player 1             Player 11
ECOMOG 15        Taylor – 5
Note: Table II is based on what happened because at the end of scenario, an election was conducted were Charles Taylor won.
1.5    OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
1.     To assess Nigeria mediatory role of the resolution of the Liberia crisis
2.    To bring to the fore the cause of the Liberia crisis vis-à-vis the reaction of the Liberia people.
3.    To assess the effect of ethnic politics and how the legitimacy of an authority can be eroded, especially in the Liberia crisis.
1.6    SCOPE OF STUDY
    This study will examine the effect of the Liberia crisis in particular and the leadership role played by Nigeria in the resolution of the Liberia crisis, with critical emphasis on the cause from 1980 to 2003.
1.7    HYPOTHESIS
1)    The ethnocentrism in multi ethnic environment such as characterized in Liberian often manifest a situation of ethnic rivalry which eventually leads to crisis.
2)     The unhealthy competition for political power leads to large scale crisis
3)    National crisis is a determinant factor to national is integration in Liberia crisis.              
 Endnotes
1.    Joseph Wayes:         Nigeria Leadership in Africa, London and
Barbing Stoke Macmith Press 1979, Introductory Chapter.
2.         Olajide Aluko:    Essay in Nigeria Policy, London, George
Allen and Unions (Publishers) Ltd, 1981 Page 241. Also Olajide Aluko, Necessity and Freedom, Nigeria Foreign Policy. Nigeria, Journal of International Studies, Volume 4, January 1980.
3.    Alli Mazuri:         Africa in World Affairs Nigeria Journal of
International Affairs.
4.    Timothy M. Shawa:    Nigeria Foreign Policy Alternatives
                Projections London Macmillan Press Ltd.
5.    Ibrahim Gambari:    Nigeria and the World Sunday New Nigeria.

THE EFFECT OF THE LIBERIA CRISIS IN PARTICULAR AND THE LEADERSHIP ROLE PLAYED BY NIGERIA 1980-2003

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Type Project
Department International and Diplomatic Studies
Project ID IDS0091
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 4 Chapters
No of Pages 59 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department International and Diplomatic Studies
    Project ID IDS0091
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 4 Chapters
    No of Pages 59 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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