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WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:103
  • Methodology:chi-square
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Sociology Project Topics & Materials)
WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
ABSTRACT
The participation of women in development programmes is well documented in the last two decades in the developed world. In the developing countries, however, such studies are still very scanty and fragmented as the roles of women in development efforts are hardly acknowledged. This paper examines the participatory role of women in community development in the rural areas and why they should be empowered, using Oviogie community in Edo State, as an example. Based on a random sampling of 101 women and men selected from the community, the study attributes the low participation of women in community development efforts to poor level of education and lack of role modeling among the women folk. The findings reveal that there is a significant relationship between the educational status of rural women and their participation in community development. Questionnaires and interview were used to gather information and facts in this study is used as a method of data collection. To ensure effective participation in community development, the paper recommended that women in the rural areas should be given the necessary education in order to enhance their effectiveness in community development projects. They should also be given the right encouragement, moral and material supports because in the absence of these supports, any programmes being embarked upon would yield minimal impact.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    
1.2     Statement of the Problem    -    -    -    -    -    
1.3     Research Questions    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.4     Objectives of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    
1.5     Significance of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    
1.6     Definition of Terms/Concepts    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1     Review of Theoretical Literatures    -    -    -    -    
2.2     Review of Empirical Literatures    -    -    -    -    
2.3     Review of Relevant Theories    -    -    -    -    -    
2.4     Theoretical Framework    -    -    -    -    -    
2.5     Hypothesis    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1     Study Design    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.2     Scope of Study and Area of Study    -    -    -    -    
3.3     Population of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    
3.4   Sample size and Sampling Technique    -    -    -    
3.5     Instrument of Data Collection    -    -    -    -    
3.6 Method of Data Collection    -    -    -    -    -    
3.7     Method of Data Analysis    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS
4.1     Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents    -    -    
4.2     Major Research Issues    -    -    -    -    -    
     4.3 Test of Hypothesis    -    -    -    -    -    
    4.4 Discussion of Findings    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1     Summary of Findings    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.2    Implications of Findings for Social Work Practice in Nigeria-    
5.3    Conclusion    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.4    Recommendations    -    -    -    -    -    -    
References    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
APPENDIX I    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study
Development is the strive of every modern society; however achieving this feat requires constant transformation in all fact of human society. In most society especially Africa (where is male dominated women, women has being at the receiving end in most level of the social development hence there is need to empower this nation builders called women.According to (Bisnath& Elson, (2003), identify empowerment as one of the key constituent of poverty reduction and primary development goal. Empowering women in modern society is nurturing them for future developmental advancement especially in the most developing countries where hunger is the major challenge been faced (Bisnath& Elson, 2003).
According to Gusnism (2012) in a paper presentation at the international women’s day, the Nigerian woman has proven to more than a mere bench warmer spectator even in the midst of male dominated congregation. Women has proved their strength and competence in our societies in all spheres even in the male dominated profession but the rise of women to lead several profession male dominated environments gives us the hope and their achievement is a pointer to the capability of the Nigeria woman. The three of such male dominated profession- the Nigerian Bar Association, Nigerian Medical association, Chartered Accountant of Nigeria have been led by female presidents.
The steady advancement of women in contributing to the nation’s community development and their progressive prominence in the national scheme of affairs have to a large extent impacted on the Federal Government, and the government has responded positively in many ways. In 1986, the federal ministry of education in Nigeria created a special unit, women’s education unit. This showed that the government was beginning to respond to the urgent need for the development of women. This special right accorded to women in education suggests that apart from women benefitting from general education, there will be a measure of encouragement to them towards specialization in sciences, engineering, and technology. Another area were the federal government of Nigeria intensified effort to develop women’s education was in the establishment of mass literacy commission. The effort of government has been complimented by the non-governmental organizations, who in several ways, especially through the offer of scholarships, and grants to secondary and higher institution female students have greatly promoted women’s education (Gusnism, 2012).
Women empowerment is dated back to 1970’s and the beginning of the international women movement. Many women organizations worldwide set up credit and saving components as a way of both enabling women to increase their incomes, and coming together to address wider gender issues. The micro-credit summit programme is not only out to reach women but also to empower them(Hogue &Itohara, 2009).
Today, awareness has led to the recognition of the important role women can play in community development and this calls for an urgent need to address these critical areas that have hindered full recognition of women’s talents, women’s right, women’s development and empowerment. Center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) (1997) argued that there exist countries barriers that hinder women’s efforts to improve the qualities of their lives. Compared to men, women have less access to crucial resources such as information, education, skill training, health (especially reproductive health and family planning), cash income and credit, all of which are necessary for survival within the current economic depression.
Presently, women have more opportunities for education and stronger legal rights in many countries; they are taking leadership roles in local communities and stand at the fore front of peace movement. Perhaps the greatest change will come when women and men agree to work together.
In our society, community development practice is not new. Before the colonial era various communities employed communal efforts as mechanism for mobilizing community resources to effect physical improvement and functional facilities in their various localities. In the social, political and economic aspect of their lives. Through communal labor farmland were cultivated, homes steeds constructed and other needed amenities provided.
In the colonial era a new concept of community development was introduced in the area of mass mobilization for self-help activities. Community development in recent times has come on top of the agenda of federal, state and local government in Nigeria .This re-awakening is justified for obvious reasons. It is common knowledge that Nigeria communities have been showing no appreciable improvement in the provisions of basic needs like food, house, medical, educational facilitates and provisions of social amenities like roads, water supply electricity etc.This situation has steadily degenerated into state of poverty diseases, filth, ignorance, unemployment for the majority of the people and their coping mechanism drastically eroded and is at the brink of collapse (Oduaran, 1994).
1.2    Statement of the Problem
According to the United Nations Millennium Campaign to reduce world poverty by the year 2015, women work two-third of the world working hours. The overwhelming majority of the labor that sustain life-growing food, cooking , raising children, caring for the elderly, maintaining a house, hauling water is done by women, and universally this work is accorded low status and with little or no pay. The ceaseless cycle of labor rarely shows up in economic analysis of a society’s product and value. Women earn only 10 percent of the world income. Where women work, they are limited to a set of jobs deemed suitable for women invariable low pay, low status position. Furthermore, there are certain laws or customs that prevent women from getting loans or credit, or having the right to inheritance or to own their homes, they have no assets to leverage for economic stability and cannot invest in their own or their children’s future.
The major problem facing the Oviogie community and every other community in Nigeria is that of deprivation of women’s right to participate in their full capacity in religious, economic, political and social activities just like their male counterparts. This hinders their ability to operate in their full capacity in development project in the local government, like every other local (rural) area. The literate women in Oviogie outnumber that of the illiterate but still create little ignorance among some of other women defending their rights
Another major source of problem is the men controlling the affairs of their families, prevents or sanctions their wives from participating or partaking in some activities of women from the local government. Some men whose wives are appointed or elected leader stopped their wives in such leadership roles thereby compounding the problems of women organization in the Ovia North East local Government of Edo state.
Another source of problem is lack of finance. This affects the organizational structure of men as a result of the fact that majority of the women are house wives who depend on their husbands. There is need for the women to finance themselves independently so as to stand a better chance to assist in their homes and also in the society. Also incompetence in management and control of women organization by their executives hinders their development and efforts. At times some women leaders seem to antagonize one another when working together towards achieving a set goal. Child bearing also affects women in participating in other activities.
The problem of community development in Nigeria is a serious concern to Nigerians and the international community. The situation has engendered political instability, dictatorial governments, lack of rule of law/social justice, and irresponsible leadership etc., resulting to stagnation in poverty and underdevelopment.
1.3    Research Questions
Based on the purpose of this investigation, the following questions were raised and answered.
1.    What are the types of women empowerment program available in Oviogie?
2.    What are the benefits of women empowerment program on women in Oviogie community?
3.    How does women empowerment contribute to the development of Oviogie community?
1.4    Objective of the Study
The general aim of the study was to examine women empowerment and community development in oviogie community however the specific objective include to:
1.    Examine the types of empowerment programersavailable for women in Oviogie community
2.    Determine the benefit of empowerment programs on the women of Oviogie community
3.    Examine how women empowerment contribute to the development of Oviogie community.
1.5    Significance of the Study
An important aspect of this study is creating awareness among the public that women empowered can contribute meaningfully to the development of their community. The function of women in contributing to the development of communities still lacks some recognition. The idea on community development has its root on women who are mothers that have played key roles in training of their men to be quality children that becomes youth that are leaders and later become the rulers and shakers of the sector to a community development. Recalling that under the auspices of the United Nations (UN), African Union (AU), International and Local Organizations, the National policy on women was designed to protect women against all forms of discrimination (Newswatch: 2000).
Aware that, a change in the traditional role of women, as well as men in the family and society is needed to achieve full equality between women and men. Whereas common understanding of women as principal prerequisite in the development of their communities, nation, region and globe. This study will therefore measure the realization of the pledge to grant women equal access to health, education, legal rights, labor market opportunities, public life and decision making position by year 2015 (MDG 2006).
Finally, for the rural community these women belong to, the study will improve on the awareness of individuals and groups to not limit the activities of these women but to help them in articulating their positions, situations and demands. This will in turn improve the standard of living, enhance rural community resources and add to national development and a successive continuation of human race.
1.6    Definition of Terms
The following concept were applied in the course of the study:
Community: A social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government and often have a common cultural and historical heritage, values, interest, beliefs.
Development: The gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advanced, stronger. This is also defined as skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self-discipline, responsibility and material well-being.
Community development:As defined by the United Nations community development is a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems. Community wellbeing (economies, social environmental, and cultural) often evolves from this type of collective action being taken at the grassroots level. Community development also involves intentional action to improve social and economic wellbeing, the sustainability of our community.
Empowerment:Empowerment is the process of increasing the capacity of individuals or groups to make choices and to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes and as an action it refers to a professional support given to people which enables them to overcome their sense of powerlessness and lack of influence and to recognize and eventually use their resources.
Women Empowerment:Women Empowerment involves empowering women to participate fully in economic life across all sectors in essential to build stronger economies, achieve intentionally agreed goals for development and sustainability and improve the quality of life for women, families and communities. It also refers to the creation of an environment for women where they can make decision of their own for their personal benefit as well as for the society.
WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

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Details

Type Project
Department Sociology
Project ID SOC0407
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 103 Pages
Methodology chi-square
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Sociology
    Project ID SOC0407
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 103 Pages
    Methodology chi-square
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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