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ASSESSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POVERTY AND CHILD LABOR IN USELU COMMUNITY, A CASE STUDY OF EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EDO STATE

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:127
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Sociology Project Topics & Materials)
ASSESSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POVERTY AND CHILD LABOR IN USELU COMMUNITY, A CASE STUDY OF EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EDO STATE
ABSTRACT
This study was carried out in Uselu community to access the relationship between poverty and child labor. Family is the principal institution for the socialization of children, in this study, it was observed the following factors were the prevailing determinant of child labor; poverty, illiteracy, culture, broken marriages, large family size, and corruptions. The study also explains the various forms of child labor that is perpetrated in the environment and its related consequences such as the child being susceptible to all forms of sickness, accidents and all forms of hardship. There are some laws/policies that has been implemented to promote the right of a child but however these policies/laws have not been implemented fully due to religious and cultural, political, economic hindrance. In the light of this reality, the following recommendations were made in the study to help Government, NGO, community based organizations, private individuals as well as social practitioners and other professionals involved in the care of children to address the problem adequately and sufficiently and to contribute to existing knowledge and social work curriculum.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1    background of the study    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.2    statement of the problem    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.3    research questions    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.4    objectives of the study    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.5    significance of the study    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.6    definition of key  terms    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Review of Theoretical Literature    -    -    -    -    -    
2.2 Review of Empirical Literature    -    -    -    -    -    
  2.3 Prevailing Determinant of Child Labor    -    -    -    -    
2.4 Forms and Nature of Child Labor    -    -    -    -    -    
2.5 Consequences of Child Labor    -    -    -    -    -    
2.6 Some Laws/Policies Regarding Child Labor in Nigeria    -    -    
2.7 Relevant Theories    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.2    Research Design    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.3    Scope of Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.4    Population of Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.2 Analyses of Demographic Data    -    -    -    -    -    
4.3 Test of Hypothesis    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, OF CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary, Discussions and Findings    -    -    -    -    
5.2 Conclusion    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.3 Implication of Findings For Social Workers In Nigeria    -    -    
5.4 Recommendation    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.5 Further Studies    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
REFERENCE    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
APPENDIX I    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Back ground Of The Study
In Africa today, child labor is recognized as the worst form of abuse and exploitation of children. Child labor is a pervasive problem in developing countries, Nigeria to be precise. Africa and Asia account for over 90% of total child employment. The international labor organization (ILO, 2013) estimated that number of working children are about 120million in the developing countries, of whom at least 69million are working full time. The fundamental rights of a child as survival, education, protection and development are grossly violated by child labor and the root cause of this is poverty which forces parents to employ their children for some extra money for daily living. Looking at the definition of poverty according to Merriam-webster (2013) it was referred to as a general scarcity, state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money. It is a multi-faceted concept which includes social, economic and political element.           
According to Peter Townsend(1974) in his definition of poverty said that individuals, families and groups in the population can be said to be in poverty when they lack the resources to obtain the type of diet, participate in the activities, can have the living condition and amenities which are customary, or at least widely encouraged or approved in the societies to which they belong, their resources are so seriously below those commanded by the average individual or family that are in effect, excluded from the ordinary living patterns, customs and activities. Poverty is also seen as a multifaceted concept, which includes social, economic and political elements. Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the lack of means necessary to meet basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter
  While child labor according to (ILO,2013), it was defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity and that is harmful to their physical and mental development. Poverty is closely linked and related to child labor especially in Nigeria being part of sub-Saharan African where a large section of people are being compelled to live below poverty line. A large number of children in Nigeria are engaged as laborers to earn some money to assist their families in one way or the other. In a scenario of extreme poverty, children are forced to lead a dark life, without the light of education and under the shadow of exploitation by their families.
 Social work historic commitment to human right, social justices and to vulnerable populations makes child labor an area of great concern to social workers. This exploitation of children is believed to have its root firmly grounded in the culture of many developing and underdeveloped nations, since culture is regarded as the way of life of a people. It embodies the philosophy, world view, behavior patterns, arts and institutions of a people (Fola, 2001) and child labor being a phenomenon associated with developing countries especially in Nigeria where our culture sees nothing wrong in children assisting parents even if it means them engaging themselves in all forms of hazardous work in other to assist in the upkeep of the family. There is however wide spread agreement that some aspects of work done by children can be good for children under the right circumstances. According to scholars (oloko 1999 et al) they have successfully differentiated between child labor and child work. They explained child work as a form of socialization for children and such work is flexible in response to the developing capacities of children while child labor aims at exploiting the child.
The specter of small children toiling long terms under dehumanizing conditions has precipitated an intense debate among scholars, policy makers and human right activist over the past two decades. It has been estimated that about 1 out of 3 children age 5-15years in sub-Saharan Africa are employed compared to central and eastern European Common Wealth of Independent state (CEE/CIS) region which about 1 out of 20 children are employed in absolute numbers, 120million children in sub-Saharan Africa, which is 35% to 40% of its children’s population are engaged in child labor(ILO,2013). Across countries and societies, various forms of child labor exists these forms ranges from trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, child domestic labor and illicit activities. Other forms includes street hawking, waste pickers, company laborers, apprentice, baby sitting, barrow pushers, conductors, water vendors, farm workers e.t.c. some which are done on contract basis, others are done as free services to guardians or relatives who in turn pays back in cash or kind to the child or the child’s parents all of which is hazardous to child overall development.
  Child labor is prevalent worldwide, occurring both in developing and developed countries (Garman and Anderson, 2004). Children are regarded as the most vulnerable in the society therefore their welfare in a society is an index and economic development of that society. Over the past two decades, the incidence of the use of children for labor outside the home has been on the increase. To this end, the children for labor as a phenomenon have become an intrinsic component of survival for most families. As a result, there is an increase of poverty in many homes in the developing countries ( Piler, 2004, Bass, 2004).
 Although child labor has been in existence through history, the difficult condition under which children work occasionally have become more evident. In most developing countries, Nigeria inclusive which is part of the sub-Saharan Africa is the most dominant place with prevalent practice in child labor. Rural children like those in Uselu community, Edo state are more involved than those in urban cities. Several factors have been tendered as reasons for child labor which includes high rates of unemployment, inflation, malnutrition, corruption, low wages, and globalization.
Furthermore, poverty has been cited as a root cause of child labor (UNICEF, 2013). Apparently aware of the dangers of child labor, the United Nations general assembly on November 20th, 1989 came out with a convention on the right a child, which 198 countries including Nigeria endorsed. Earlier before 1973, the nation through its organ which is the International Labor Organization (ILO,2012) in convention C138 had advised state parties to ensure a minimum age of employment, which usually should correspond to primary school leaving age.
 Also in 1999, the ILO adopted a more comprehensive measure by banning the use of children in what is referred to as the “WORST FORMS” of child labor and stipulating penalties for violation (ILO 2012). They lost confidence in most parent and most caregivers which led Nandana(1988) to remark that when you look into a child’s eyes you expect to see hope, trust and innocence but these signs of childhood are being replaced by betrayal, hunger, fear and suspicion. In spite of legislative measures taken by the government and various levels, child labor remains the major source of concern in Nigeria. In 2013, the worldbank with UNICEF and International Labor Organization(ILO) estimated that 168million children aged 5-17 worldwide were involved in child labor. UNICEF (2013) argued that more than 650million children in the world live in poverty while 130million children do not have access to education and that poverty is the main reason for children working outside their homes,  insub-saharan Africa, this situation has worsened, with most parts of the continent recording prevalence ranges from 20% to 54%. In sub Saharan Africa, over 35% of children are working and Nigeria has estimated 15million child laborers(Bass, 2004, Oloko, 2004). Several factors such as poverty, low socio-economic status of parents and cultural and religious factors coupled with the lack of enforcement of labor restrictions and inconsistencies in the anti-child laborers, especially in the developing countries. These factors, have thus accounted for the high child employment rate of 90% of world total for Africa and Asia ( Oloko, 2004, Rawanpura and Rai, 2004).
  According to UNICEF (2008), an estimated 218million children aged 5-17 are engaged in child labor, excluding child domestic labor which is seen as a socialization process for children all over the world. 126million of these children are believed to be engaged in hazardous situation or condition such as working in mines, working with dangerous machineries, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture especially in Nigeria today. Furthermore, ILO (2013) states that the use of children as laborers has a global dimension and cuts across every continents. It further argues that in Asia, child labor incidence constitutes a prevalence rate of about 61%, 32% in Africa, 17% in Latin America, 1% in US, Canada, Europe, and other wealthy nations. The proportion of child laborers varies a lot among counties and even regions inside those countries. In some regions, the situations have worsened (Ennew, 2002, Bohning, 2003). UNICEF (2008) argues that in Africa, one out of three children is at work and in Latin one out of five children works. In both continents, only a tiny proportion of child workers are involved in the formal sector and the vast majority of works are carried out in the informal sectors, that is, within the household, in the field (farms)or on the streets.
  In Nigeria, there is an upsurge in the incidence of child laborers in the past two decades, making it a full blown industry, especially in the urban areas. This is largely attributed to the economic situation of the country, which has led to the involvement of the children as substantial contributors to their family income by working as carriers in market places, street hawkers, workshop apprentice, and domestic servants (Taiwo, 2010). Okoye and Tanyi (2010) argued that a critical look at the socio-economic context of child labor in Nigeria reveals that there is a difference between the socially accepted gradual exposure of a child to work and the exploitation or gross undermining of the development prospects of the child in labor process. In other words, works can be in form of learning and self expression as well as impetus for growth, but become dangerous when it turns into labor or becomes demanding drudgery characterize by repetition, physical exertion and with adverse impacts on the physical, mental and welfare of the child.
  The use of children as laborers has number of causes. Poverty is widely considered the main reason why the children do works that are inappropriate for their ages outside their homes. Across countries and cultures, other causes includes; family expectation and traditions, institutional collapse, decay in social services, such as health care, education, and transportation, public opinion that downplays the risk of early work for children, violation of labor standards by employers, illiteracy and family disorganization, traditional beliefs, massive rural-urban migration, low economic cost and large family size ( lopez-Calva, 2001, Brown, 2002 et al).
Child labor in sub-Saharan Africa is more in population. This was what prompted me as the researcher to access poverty as the root cause of child labor taking Uselu community in Edo state as a case study.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Millions of children around the world are trapped in child labor, depriving them of their childhood, their health and education and condemning them to a life of poverty and want. Children of households living in extreme poverty are vulnerable to higher risk of getting engaged in an occupation that is hazardous. Mainly child labor is concentrated in the informal sector of the economy and remains veiled from the statistics and planning procedures. These children do not enjoy the basic amenities of life and are exposed to lasting physical and psychological impairment and it is a direct threat to the length and quality of their life and also damages the capability of their imaginations and creativity. It has been related by the international community that as long as child labor continues, there will be a huge obstacle in the way of achieving the Millennium Development Goals(MDG).
 According to Psacharopoulos(1996), he postulated that working children lose their educational attainment abilities as compared to nonworking children of same age group and it will lead to loss of future human capital in person and at national level. It can also lead to low income earnings in the future as a result of low credentials which can also lead to “The Vicious Circle of Child Labor” in next generations to come.
Therefore, the study of the relationship between poverty and child labor as a problem facing the Nigeria child is seen from both theoretical and policy perspective and this relationship was found from previous research carried out by scholars in Uselu community i.e lots of research has been carried out in this field worldwide but my aim is to help understand these problem from a different angle and to contribute my quota on ways to curb this menace from Uselu community, Edo state.
1.3ResearchQuestion
 This study shall answer the following questions:
1    What is the relationship between poverty and child labor?
2    What are the prevailing determinants of child labor?
3    What are the consequences of child labor?
4    Are poor parents likely to send their children to work?
5    How does culture contribute to child labour?
6    What are the effective and intervention tools that can potentially reduce poverty and child labor in Uselu community
1.4    Objective of the Study
 The aim of this study is to analyze poverty and child labor which this research topic has focuses its findings.  In other to achieve this aim, the objectives of this study are:
1    To ascertain that there is a relationship between poverty and child labor in Uselu community.
2    To determine the prevalent factors of child labor in Uselu community.
3    To analyze the various consequences of child labor in Uselu community.
4    To ascertain if poor parents are likely to send their children to work.
5    To analyze how culture can contribute to child labor in Uselu community.
6    To recommend measures to control and possibly eliminate poverty and child labor in Uselu community.
1.5    Significant of the Study
1, The study would lead to proper understanding of the phenomenon of poverty and child labor, its causes and effect on the rural child in Uselucommunity
2, The findings of this study should enable individuals, government and organizations to put in place the appropriate mechanism or strategies towards the eradication of poverty and child labor especially in rural areas as well as also improve the educational facilities and standard of education in Nigeria particularly in Uselu community, Edo state.
3,  Lastly, this research work will act as a guide and useful source of reference material for further research. This study is coming at a time when the incidence of child labor has become a common phenomenon in Uselu community, Edo state.
1.6DefinitionofTerms
CHILD: According to the child rights act 2003 passed into law in the federal capital territory, a child is regarded as persons who has not attained the age of 18years while under the children and young person’s act, a child is persons under the age of 14years
CULTURE: Culture is seen as a way of life of a people
CHILD LABOR: According to the united nations international children’s emergency funds(UNICEF), it was defined as participating in works that result in excessive physical, social and psychological strains on a child while the international labor organization(ILO) defined it as  work that deprives children of their childhood, their potentials and their dignity and that is harmful to their physical and mental development
CHILD POVERTY: According to the United Nations international children’s emergency fund(UNICEF), they defined child poverty as a child being deprived of the basic needs which they need to grow such as nutrition, health, education, water, shelter etc.
BONDED LABOR: It is also seen as debt bondage or debt slavery it’s a person’s pledge of labor or services to repay a debt or other obligation and most times the service duration may be undefined.


ASSESSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POVERTY AND CHILD LABOR IN USELU COMMUNITY, A CASE STUDY OF EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EDO STATE

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Type Project
Department Sociology
Project ID SOC0404
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 127 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Sociology
    Project ID SOC0404
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 127 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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