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THE CHALLENGE OF WATER ACCESSIBLITY: IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE IN OKHUMWUN COMMUNITY

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:124
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Sociology Project Topics & Materials)
THE CHALLENGE OF WATER ACCESSIBLITY: IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE IN OKHUMWUN COMMUNITY
ABSTRACT
In the years ahead, meeting the challenges of food security in a water scarce world will require drastic changes in the way water resources are managed. Accordingly, Nigerian’s water sector has seen tremendous changes over the years culminating especially in the rural area. This paper evaluates the challenges of water accessibility in the rural sector and its implication to social work practice. It also reviews existing policy to highlight its strengths and weaknesses, to inform possible future review and guide new policy development in developing countries or troubleshoot existing policies. With the aid of primary and secondary sources of data therefore, this study examines the challenges of water supply in Okhumwun community and social workers involvement in ensuring the issue of inaccessibility of water is addressed.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Review of Relevant Concepts    -    -    -    -    -    -    
2.1.1 Water    -    -    -    -        -    -    -    -    
2.1.2 Evolution of Water Supply in Nigeria-    -    -    -    -    -    
2.1.3 Importance of Water from Historical Perspective-        -    -    
2.1.4 Attempts at Addressing the Water Question In Nigeria -     -    
2.1.5 Rural Water Supply Situation In Nigeria    -    -    -    
2.1.6 Challenges of Water Accessibility In Nigeria -    -    -    -    
2.1.7 Consequences Of Inadequate Water Supply In Nigeria    -
2.1.8 Governments Role In Water Accessibility    -    -    -    
2.1.9 Implication To Social Work Practice -    -    -    -    -    
2.2 Theoretical Framework-    -    -    -    -    -    -    
2.2.1    Empowerment Theory    -    -    -    -        
2.2.2  Modernization Theory    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.2 Research Design    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.3 Population of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique    -    -    -    -    
3.5 Research Instrument    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument    -    -    
3.7 Method of Data Collection    -    -    -    -    -    
3.8 Method of Data Analysis    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION /ANALYSIS AND DISCUSION OF FINDINGS
4.0 Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.1 Analysis of Respondents Characteristics    -    -    -    -    -    
4.2 Analysis of Research, Presentation and Discussion of Findings    -    -    

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.2 Summary     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.3   Recommendations -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.4 Conclusion    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
References    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
Questionnaire    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
 CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Even  though  water  is  one  of  the  precious  gifts  to  mankind,  lack  of  access to  safe  drinking  water  and  basic sanitation  is  one  of  the  problems  affecting  billions  of people  around  the  world  (Hesperian  Foundation,  2005). This  is  particularly  so  in  the  developing  countries  where level  of  access  to  water  and  water  related  facilities  are said  to  be  very  low. Worldwide, water availability will be a key issue in the 21st century. Per capita water availability is projected to fall from 6600 to 4800 m3 between 2000 and 2025 because of uneven distribution of water resources. However, most of the world's  population  will  have  below  1700  m3per  capita  (Cosgrove &Rijsberman,  2000).Water  availability  is  a  major  concern  in  the  rural communities of Nigeria, which supports about 30% of the country's population (Vargas -Lundius, 2007).
Water has been viewed as the global common heritage and everyone should, albeit effectively, have an inalienable social and political right to it. However, fresh water shortage has been noticed around the globe. The challenges of water supply have constituted a factor inducing conflicts in some parts of the world because the earth’s fresh water is diminishing due to man’s activities and climate change (Barlow & Clarke, 2002).Nigeria as a nation is in no way disassociated from the challenges of water supply. With the attainment of independence in 1960, our new indigenous leaders did not only inherit political power but the infrastructure including water facilities and distribution network from the colonial government (Ali, 2009).
The question therefore is to what extent have they been preserved, reconstructed, and even multiplied to ignite the development of the nation? With the current preponderance of water scarcity in the country, it is increasingly becoming obvious that not much have been achieved in that regard(McCord, 2009). The social, economic and political implication of this is disturbing. Infrastructures are basic facilities provided by the public or private organizations to facilitate efficient development in an organization, the society, community or nation in general (Akpan, 2009). They can becompartmentalized into social and economic infrastructure. While the former encompasses recreation and tourist services, health care services, welfare, housing and education, the latter involves the provision of facilities such as potable water, electricity, roads, railways, airports, communication, etc. that can enhance the economic development of a nation.
Water, which is the crux of this research, can be viewed as an aspect of economicinfrastructure. Studies on fresh water have hitherto been confined to professionals such as hydrologists, engineers, scientists, city planners and meteorologists (Peter & Reed, 2004). In contemporary times however, with the shortage of fresh water, various organizations comprising human rights and environmental groups, international agencies, NGOs and diverse community groups have indicated interest in the water question (Barlow &Clarke, 2002) calling for actions that would help preserve, protect and ensure the systematic distribution of the earth’s fresh water to meet the need of humanity.
Water, as it is generally alluded to, sustains life. It is impossible to survive without the availability of water. The World Trade Organization(2004) categorizes water as a “good” (Barlow &Clarke, 2002).  Those in the water business referred to it as “blue gold”; atradable good with the aim of profit maximization. Little wonder the ever increasing state of commoditization and cartelization of water around the world (Barlow &Clarke, 2002).
Few  decades  ago,  there  have  been  efforts  to increase  provision  of  domestic water  for  both rural  and urban homes. However, water is still unavailable to many, mainly those located in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia (Ellen &Kellog, 2005). Furthermore, the availability of water varies greatly, while some people pay so dearly for domestic water, others have an easy access to  adequate  clean  water  due  to  their location  and  social  status  in  the  society  (Hunter, Pond , Jagals, &Cameron,  2009). The United Nations as part of its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) stipulates that by 2015 the population of people without sustainable access to safe water will be reduced by half (Linda, 2005). As a result of this, efforts are being made by the developed nations to increase provision of domestic water and sanitation, but no serious efforts are made by the developing nations to meet this target.
Rural communities in many developing nations have to obtain their drinking water from untreated surface sources, often situated far away from their residence.  For  instance,  in  many  Nigerian  rural communities,  water  supply  infrastructures  are  still  at developmental stage or are completely absent (Rossiter, Owusu , Awuah, MacDonald&Schafer, 2010).  Worldwide,  waterborne  diseases  cause death  and  suffering  of  millions  of  people,  especially children  in  developing  countries.  This  made  the  World Health Organization (2009),  to  suggest  that  improving sanitation  and  hygiene  could  drastically  reduce  child mortality.  
Recent survey by (Majuru, Michael-Mokoena, Jagals& Hunter2011) estimated that 65 million Nigerians had no access to safe water. The situation was worse in the rural areas where only 24% of the population were said to have access to safe water. Provision of clean, reliable and potable water in rural areas remain therefore a challenge considering the fact that the larger percentage of the population live in rural areas (Mwendera, 2006). When provision of clean water is inadequate, people are compelled to use contaminated water that later result into water related diseases and in the outbreak of these diseases. Thus, governments need to spend money on what would have been prevented by provision of clean water (Mwendera, 2006).   The  major  sources  of  water supply for the rural populace are hand-dug wells, natural springs  and  streams,  together  with  rainfall  harvest, majority  of  which  are  highly  unreliable  during  the  dry seasons  (Makoni, Manase, &Ndamba, 2004).
As  in  other  parts  of  the country,  efforts  geared  towards  rural  development  in Nigeria and towards “water for all by the year 2020” have increased the assessment, exploration and exploitation of water resources both surface and underground (Ellen &Kellog,  2005).  Provision of water is critical to the improvement of the quality of life of people because having access to sufficient quantities of clean and safe water enhances the health and productive lives of people in rural areas. This is important both in social and community development promoted by social workers.  Social work practice addressing environmental issues and sustainable development is both developing and improving the living environment, physical infrastructure and facilities, as well as ensuring participation and empowerment of people( Aveyard 2010Saini&Shlonsky 2012)..
Sustainable development, even though a contested concept, refers to environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable future where economic growth does not happen on the expense of natural  environment  or  some people  and  countries (Buckingham & Kina 2015). Besides  sustainability, there  is  a  growing  interest  in  resilience,  allowing  people, and communities to  cope  with effects  of  environmental challenges such  as climate change. Social workers have a valuable contribution to make to the water supply sector, which is at the center of the fabric of rural communities, because of their understanding and skill in dealing with social and community development problems(Matthies, Närhi& Ward 2001; Coates 2003; Dominelli, 2012).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Water,  next  to  air,  is  the  most  important  need  of  man.  Water is life and a fundamental human right.  The human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water (Todaro&Smith, 2009).  It therefore,  implies  that  provision  of  financially  viable,  reliable  water  supply service  of  acceptable  quantity  and  quality  for  domestic  and  industrial  uses  is essential  to  healthy  living,  poverty  alleviation  and  sustainable  socio-economic development (ENSG, 2009).
Water availability varies in space and time.Access to water in Nigeria was 47% in 1990 but rose slightly to 54% in 2010 (The Free Encyclopedia 2006). The National Sanitation coverage for 2010 was just 32%. Recently, it has been estimated that only 58% of the masses have access to potable water, that is 87 million people, while 63 million are sidelined (Azubike, 2013). This varies from urban to rural communities as the latter is worse hit by the problem. Yet, the WHO (2009), recommended 120 liters of water per person daily to meet domestic water utilization and function effectively. However, given the proliferation of the challenges of water supply, most people could not attain this.
In examining the preceding, it is pertinent to pose the following questions- why isthere still water scarcity in Nigeria despite the huge sum of money that was claimed to have been sunk into the sector by successive regimes? Why is the country plagued with water challenges despite the various watersheds, rivers and springs it is endowed with? Should the problem of water scarcity be solely attributed to the factor of climate change? Should colonialism be blamed for the water challenges in Nigeria today?(Akanmu, 2011).These are critical questions that demand answers and these will be unveiled in the course of the discourse.
According  to  Antonio  (2005), more  than  1.2  billion  people in  the  World  still  lack  access  to  safe  drinking  water.  Barney (2005)  noted  that,  over  the  next  30  years,  virtually  all  of the  world’s  population  growth  is  expected  to  be  concentrated  in  urban  areas  in  the  developing  countries,  in which  Nigeria  occupies  a  vital  position,  with  its  attendant socio-economic and environmental impact.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is to examine;
1.    To determine the extentof water accessibility in Okhumwun community.
2.    To ascertain the extent to which inadequate power supply hinders water accessibility in Okhumwun community.
3.    To examine the extent to which poor funding by the government hinders water accessibility.
4.    To determine the role corruption plays in the inaccessibility of water supply.
5.    To ascertain the government’s role in addressing the challenge of water accessibility.
6.    To examine the relationship between social work practice and water accessibility.
1.4    RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In line with the objectives of the study, the following research questions are raised:
1.    What is the extent of water accessibility in Okhumwun community?
2.    To what extent has inadequate power supply hindered water accessibility?
3.    To what extent is poor funding by the government a hindrance to water accessibility?
4.    What role has corruption had in the inaccessibility of water supply?
5.    What is the role of government in addressing the challenge of water accessibility?
6.    What is the relationship between social work practice and water accessibility?
1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The alarming state of safe water deprivation among the residents of rural communities in Nigeria is well recognized. Unfortunately, research that shows the policy gap in the water supply sector of the country and measures to eliminate them in order to improve water supply sustainability in the country is lacking.
This study will shed light on the sources, availability and affordability of safe water in the rural area and by extension, Nigeria. The challenges faced  by rural communities  in  meeting  the  water  and  sanitation  needs  will  be  exposed.  The  problems  people  experience  with  accessibility of water  supply in  Nigeria  are  numerous  and  complex, therefore, the result of this study will provide basic information for designing structures and programmesby the policy makers in reevaluating existing policies so as to come up with more realistic programs for the accessibility of water in the rural communities. It will also provide evidence based information on water accessibility in rural area as it serves as a reference material to other researchers in the field of rural water accessibility. Findings of the study will help stakeholders get available data to help needing communities. It will also help in building up and improving data on water accessibility in the rural area which will help further with research, advocacy, policy dialogue and programming.
1.6    DEFINITIONS OF CONCEPTS
Community Participation: This is a process where community members come together to take collective actions and generate solutions to common problems.
Economic Development: This is a process by which a nation improves the economic, political and social wellbeing of its people.
Rural  Community:  Rural  people  usually  live  in  a  farmstead  or  in  groups  of houses  containing about 5000  persons, separated by farmland, pasture, trees or scrubland. Most rural people spend the majority of their working time on farms.
Sanitation: This refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatments and disposal of human excrement and sewage.
Sustainable Development: This is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural system to natural provide the natural resources and ecosystem service upon which the economy and society depends.
Water Accessibility: The degree to which a household can obtain the water it needs from any source in a reliable way for agriculture or other purposes.
Water Scarcity: The point at which the aggregate impact of all users impinges on the supply or quality of water under prevailing institutional arrangements to the extent that the demand by all sectors, including the environment, cannot be satisfied fully.
Water Supply: This is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organization, community endeavor or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Social Work:Is a helping profession with its main goal being to improve a society’s overall well-being, especially for the most vulnerable populations.
Social Work Implication:This refers to the significance of social work in the tackling of the challenges of water accessibility.
Various Challenges Identified:This refers to the various factors hindering the availability of water supply.
THE CHALLENGE OF WATER ACCESSIBLITY: IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE IN OKHUMWUN COMMUNITY

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Details

Type Project
Department Sociology
Project ID SOC0403
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 124 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Sociology
    Project ID SOC0403
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 124 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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