SUB-OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE OF COUPLES IN MARITAL STABILITY AMONGST BENIN SPEAKING PEOPLE OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EDO STATE CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Marriage is very important in the Benin Culture. When it comes to Marriage, maintaining a good balance is key to staying happy and healthy .Balancing family is a complex issue that involves financial values, gender roles, career paths, time management and many other factors. Hidden values and models from our cultures, original families and other sources influence our choices in ways that we often don’t anticipate or understand and that have far reaching consequences for our lives. Balancing family has no easy solution no –one-size-fits-all approach. Every couples will have their own preferences and needs.(patricia S & Gregory A Kuhlman 2004) Marriage is a unique institution as it is practiced by all ethnic groups, race or religious group.(Vincent-Osaghae 2007). A successful marriage is a dynamic and a growing relationship based on love, dignity, respect, co-operation, humility and other centeredness. At such marriage involve a high level of satisfaction for each individual and helps make his/her life more abundant and meaningful.(Thomas & Anderson 1972) In a marriage union, the presence of love and submission cannot be overemphasized as rudimentary. In ancient times, marriages in Oredo L.G.A among the Benin ethnic groups were greatly admired by neighboring areas. According to Iyi-Iweka 2012, Benin women were regarded as very faithful, trustworthy, honest and with strong fidelity to their husbands such that it was very difficult for other ethnic groups to get a Benin woman as wife. The Benin culture expects every married .woman to be submissive and obedient to her husband while in all condition the husband has to love the wife in return. In Nigeria today, the influence of industrialization and urbanization has affected the social system of the country, a part of which is the marriage system. As new cultural patterns, new aspirations and behavioral norms have emerged and as the traditional social ties undergo changes, social control becomes weakened .Since the traditional family structure has been littered, the functions have equally been affected and many of it important roles are now known to be associated with many forms of instability. According to Filani, 2005.Marital instability is a breakdown in communication among couples resulting in constant arguments, verbal and physical separation and sometimes divorce. Thus, (Lands 2005) explained that divorce becomes a climax to a long story of unhappiness and it provides a legal way out of a situation which one or both parties have considered intolerable. Hence it is clear that the African culture demands that a woman be respectful and submissive to her husband and in return the husbands should love and cherish the wife for a healthy and stable marriage. Healthy marriage is good for couple’s mental, physical ,educationally and socially. However, divorce often shatters the peace and harmony in the family(Salami,2008). 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Due to the cases studied during the researcher’s field practicum experience at the ministry of women affairs (family welfare unit), National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in person(NAPTIP) and a review of literatures on marriages in previous years which reveals that for couples to experience stability in marriage, there has to be a mutual understanding amongst them. From the background of study the standpoint of the society at large on the issue of submission can be seen yet people still see submission as something domineering, degrading, and humiliating .Regardless of the sex gender be it male or female. Marriages today are two –headed monstrosity because of a rebellious wife who refuses to submit to her husband’s instructions as well as a culturally dominated man who manifest a supremacy over his wife and make the conditions of the woman like that of a colonized people.(living in a man’s world) by battering, maltreating, disrespecting or abusing. Oredo in 21st century is almost frequently contesting the submission of wives to their husbands while married men make several excuses coupled with certain factors find it insulting and/or even out of place to love, honour and cherish their wives. This has led to several social problems such as marriage instability, marriage failures, separation, infidelity, self-centeredness and even divorce. In view of this, the researcher is forced to ponder on the major issues that causes instability in marriage and how couples need to dedicate themselves to work together as a team and work on the important milestones to strengthen their marriage. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION Following the afore- stated statement of problem, this study is interested in finding answers to the following research questions. 1. Does stability of marriage ensure family cohesion? 2. Does certain factors as Education, Occupation, Social groups, Finance, e.t.c distorts stability in marriage. 3. To what extent has these issues distorted and affected marriages and the society? 4. Does a man’s unfaithfulness and a woman’s status affect the act of submitting to one another?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The general objective which the study intends to achieve is to determine how suboptimal performances among couples affect the stability of marriages and to recommend ways for improved performance and ensure happiness among couples. Specific objectives, 1. To examine how stability of marriage ensure family cohesion. 2. To evaluate how certain factors such as education, occupation, social groups ,finance, e.t.c affects marital stability and the extent to which these issues has affected the marriage institution and the society at large. 3. To proffer solution to the problems. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study will be significant to the society as it is very timely especially now that hands are on deck to reducing the rate of divorce in the country. It is also important for social work practitioners in the area of marriage counseling, family welfare department, marital therapists e.t.c. Its result will help couples in tackling marital issues without a third party intervention and the unmarried women and men in proper preparation towards marriage life and its responsibilities. The findings of this study will therefore fill this gap thereby contributing to the knowledge base of social work in Nigeria.
1.6 AREA OF THE STUDY The study Area for this research is Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. The headquarters of Oredo Local Government is Benin City which also is the capital city of Edo State. Benin City was the capital city of the Great Benin Empire where the Benin speaking people originates from and the Oba of benin Omo N ‘Oba’ Nedo. Ukpu akpolo kpolo. It is the home to many prominent Benin individuals and also the centre of the two oldest and most popular markets in the state. Oredo Local Government Secretariat is at the centre of Benin City popularly Ring Road. It is the major base of the Benin speaking people. 1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study will examine the effect of suboptimal performance among couples in marital stability amongst Benin speaking people of Oredo local government area. Benin City Edo State. Oredo local government is chosen because it is the most exposed local government Area among other local government, it is the centre of the Benin Empire and most dwellers are benin speaking people. It is also a good representative of other local governments in Edo State. 1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS To avoid difficulty in the use of terminology, some of these terms used are defined below. 1. Sub-optimal - Not comparable or Balance 2. Performance - The act of performing, carrying into execution or action. 3. Couples - Two partners in a romantic or sexual relationship 4. Stability - The condition of being stable or in equilibrium and thus resistance to change. 5. Marriage - A union of two or more people that creates a family tie and Carries Legal and /or Social rights and responsibilities.(14th century). 1.9 A BRIEF HISTORY OF BENIN SPEAKING PEOPLE The Benin speaking people Originate and constitute the major population of the former Benin kingdom in Edo State.(The Benin Empire).The Edo people are the ancient Kwa language Bini speaking ethnic groups who occupy south/mid western Nigeria now called Edo state. The Edo/Benin speaking ethnic groups include the Esan, the Afemai, the isoko, the Urhobo among others. They are the descendants of the people who founded the ancient and mighty Benin Empire.(otedo News Update, March 13, 2014). The generic term Edo therefore refers to these people who have shared historical origin as well as political and cultural similarities. These people are called the Edoid people. However, these days the Esan, the Afemai, the Isoko, The Urhobo and others see themselves as distinct ethnic group though they are all of Edoid origin. As a result, the Edo proper (Benin) now occupy seven(7) out of the 18 Local Government Areas of the Edo State which constitute 57.54% (Jacob Egharevba 2013). Geography of Edo State. The state has a land mass of 19,794km square. Lying on 05 44N and 07 34N Latitude, 05 4 E and 06 45E longitudes. Edo state is low lying except towards the north axis where the Northern and Eastern plateaus range from 183 metres of the kukuruku Hills and 672 metres of the Somorika Hills.
Location It is so located that it forms the nucleus of the Niger Delta region. It is borderd by Kogi State to the North and Delta State to the East and South, Ekiti and Ondo States to the west. Language The Benin Language is a Kwa Niger-Congo language spoken primarily in Edo state, Nigeria. It was and remains the primary language of the Edo people of Igodomigodo.(Elughe 1989). It is rated as one of the first few of the twenty-four lanquage which make up the Edoid group in Nigeria. The language is currently spoken throughout most of the territories which are coterminous with the old Benin province.
SUB-OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE OF COUPLES IN MARITAL STABILITY AMONGST BENIN SPEAKING PEOPLE OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EDO STATE
SUB-OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE OF COUPLES IN MARITAL STABILITY AMONGST BENIN SPEAKING PEOPLE OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EDO STATE CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Marriage is very important in the Benin Culture. When it comes to Marriage, maintaining a good balance is key to staying happy and healthy .Balancing family is a complex... Continue Reading
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