The effect of ingredients, spices and ratio of water of extraction to sorrel calyx quantity and preservation method on the quality of zobo drink sold within awka metropolis was carried out through field studies, processing activities, physiochemical, analytical and organoleptic studies. The research design involved the random sampling approach which was adopted in the selection of the six (6) zobo samples from the 5 different markets within Awka metropolis while the last zobo sample was the laboratory zobo sample. Field studies and oral interview findings were carried out on commercial, household noncommercial producers and consumers based on their background characteristics, perception on zobo quality parameters; processing techniques, ingredients and frequency distribution on level of satisfaction. The self-processed zobo drink was produced with 375g dry red sorrel calyces, 1500ml water, Cola flavor sweetener (jollyjuice), ginger, pineapple and its peels. Proximate analysis was carried out on the sorrel calyx while vitamin C, mineral and phytochemical determination were carried out on the laboratory zobo sample (LZS). Also, pH and sensory evaluation were carried out on the seven (7) samples of the zobo drinks. The result of the physiochemical properties of the seven samples of zobo drinks showed that sample LZS contains the lowest pH value of 2.77±0.058 being the most acidic while both samples MPHMSS and FAGMSS contains the highest pH value of 3.03±0.058 being slightly acidic. The results of the sensory evaluation obtained from the panelist revealed that sample LZS was rated the best in all sensory parameters of colour, taste, flavor, texture, mouthfeel and general acceptance withsensory scores of 6.73±0.458, 6.13±0.833, 6.066±0.798, 6.00±0.845,6.13±0.743 and 6.6±0.632 falling within the range of ‘’like moderately and like extremely’’ while sample FAGMSS was rated the most disliked in all sensory parameters of colour, taste, flavor, texture, mouthfeel and general acceptance with sensory scores of 3.46±1.807,2.46±1.684, 1.933±1.032, 2.4±1.404,2.20±1.473,2.46±1.355 falling within the range of dislike moderately. Ingredients, spices and as well as ratio of volume of water used in zobo production had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the quality of zobo produced within awka metropolis and the best combination is sample LZS (laboratory zobo sample) containing 375g of sorrel calyx, 1500ml of water, ginger, less water dilution of zobo extract and pineapples and its peels which was produced hygienically.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i Certification ii Approval Page iii Dedication iv Acknowledgement v Table of Contents vi List of Tables vii List of Figures viii Abstract vix
INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study and Statement of problem 1.2 Aims and objectives of the study 1.2.1 Aims of the study 1.2.2 Specific objectives of the study 1.3 Scope of the study 1.4 Limitation of Study
LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Sorrel calyx 2.2 Nutritional composition of sorrel calyx 2.3 Uses of sorrel calyx 2.3.1 Food and traditional uses 2.3.2 Medicinal uses 2.3.3 Cosmeceutical uses 2.4 Sorrel calyx processing and products 2.4.1 Sorrel products 2.5 Zobo drink 2.6 Zobo drink production 2.7 Volumes of water zobo drink extraction from Sorrel calyx 2.8 Zobo-drink Quality 2.9 Zobo-drink packaging and marketing 2.10 Spoilage of Zobo-drink 2.11 Zobo-drink storage and preservation
MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Materials 3.2 Research Design 3.3 Processing Operations and Procedures 3.4 Method of Analysis 3.4.1 Field Studies 3.4.2 Proximate analyses 3.4.3 Phytochemical analyses 22.214.171.124 Qualitative and quantitative test for alkaloids 126.96.36.199 Qualitative and quantitative test for flavonoids 188.8.131.52 Qualitative and quantitative test for saponins 184.108.40.206 Qualitative and quantitative test for tannins 3.4.4 Determination of Vitamin C 3.4.5 Mineral Determination 3.4.6 pH Determination 3.4.7 Sensory evaluation of seven samples of zobo drink 3.4.8 Data Analysis
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Results of field studies 4.1.1 Background characteristics of zobo producers 4.1.2 Oral Interview 4.1.3 Consumers and producers perception of zobo drink quality 4.2 Result of laboratory analyses 4.2.1 Proximate composition of samples 4.2.2 Vitamin and mineral content of laboratory processed zobo drink 4.2.3 Phytochemical content of laboratory processed zobo drink 4.3 Results of organoleptic acceptability and pH of market and Laboratory self-processed zobo samples
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Conclusion 5.2 Recommendation References AppendicesQUALITY EVALUATION OF MARKET SAMPLES OF ZOBO-DRINK IN AWKA, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA