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Domestic water treatment using moringa oleifera seed powder

  • Type:Project
  • Pages:85
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Civil Engineering Project Topics & Materials)
ABSTRACT
Most people living in rural communities, have no access to good domestic water for 
consumption. The inhabitants depends on rain water, well water and sometimes surface 
water for consumption. Improper treatment of water gotten from these sources, can lead 
to the spread of water borne diseases, because, sometimes the water gotten from these 
sources are turbid. Although, some inhabitants use alum to treat the water so as to make 
the water clear. But excessive usage of alum to treat water can induce Alzheimers 
disease. It is in this light that this research was carried out to confirm the effectiveness 
of powder extracted from mature-dried Moringa oleifera seeds, a cheap and readily 
available local coagulant, on water quality. Four water samples were gotten from each 
of the rain water, hand dug well and borehole water sources. The physical, chemical, 
and biological characteristics of the water was examined using alum and moringa seed 
powder respectively. It was observed that the physical characteristics such as the 
appearance, odour, total solids and turbidity of the water samples was improved upon 
addition of alum and moringa seed extract respectively, but the seed extract proved 
more efficient in treating the water samples. As for the chemical characteristics of the 
water samples, addition of alum further reduced the pH of the water and made the water 
more acidic. Also, the nitrate, iron, sulphate, B.O.D, dissolved oxygen the water got 
reduced. It was also observed that chemical parameters such as electrical conductivity, 
total alkalinity, chloride, magnesium and calcium hardness was increased, and in some 
instances beyond the permissible limits. Addition of Moringa seed extract was observed 
to improve the chemical characteristics of the water samples. The pH of the water was 
stabilized. Parameters such as electrical conductivity, nitrate, total alkalinity, chloride, 
magnesium and calcium hardness, iron and sulphate was reduced. Also, the dissolved 
oxygen and B.O.D was increased. Lastly, the biological parameter such the the bacteria 
count remain unchanged upon addition of alum and moringa seed extract respectively. 
Findings from this study indicate that Moringa oleifera, a natural coagulant, can be a 
potentially viable substitute to alum in treatment of water.

TABLE OF CONTENT    
viii      
ix  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1: Formation of a microfloc ........................................................................... 20 Figure 2.2: Formation of a floc from microfloc ........................................................... 21 Figure 2.3: Conventional water treatment process ...................................................... 28 Figure 3.1: Position of Ekiti State on the map of Nigeria ............................................ 29 Figure 3.2: Map of Ekiti State showing all local government area of the state ........... 30 Figure 3.3: An overview of methodology .................................................................... 32 Figure 4.1: Total solids rain water ............................................................................... 53 Figure 4.2: Total solids hand dug well......................................................................... 53 Figure 4.3: Total solids hand pump borehole .............................................................. 54 Figure 4.4: Turbidity rain water ................................................................................... 55 Figure 4.5: Turbidity hand dug well ............................................................................ 55 Figure 4.6: Turbidity hand pump borehole .................................................................. 56 Figure 4.7: Electrical conductivity rain water .............................................................. 57 Figure 4.8: Electrical conductivity hand dug well ....................................................... 57 Figure 4.9: Electrical conductivity hand pump borehole ............................................. 58 Figure 4.10: pH value rain water ................................................................................. 59 Figure 4.11: pH value hand dug well ........................................................................... 59 Figure 4.12: pH value hand pump borehole................................................................. 60 Figure 4.13: Nitrate rain water ..................................................................................... 61 Figure 4.14: Nitrate hand dug well .............................................................................. 61 Figure 4.15: Nitrate hand pump borehole .................................................................... 62 Figure 4.16: Total alkalinity rain water ....................................................................... 63 Figure 4.17: Total alkalinity hand dug well ................................................................. 63 Figure 4.18: Total alkalinity hand pump borehole....................................................... 64 Figure 4.19: Chloride rain water .................................................................................. 65 Figure 4.20: Chloride hand dug well ........................................................................... 65 Figure 4.21: Chloride hand pump borehole ................................................................. 66 Figure 4.22: Magnesium hardness rain water .............................................................. 67 Figure 4.23: Magnesium hardness hand dug well ....................................................... 68 Figure 4.24: Magnesium hardness hand pump borehole ............................................. 68 Figure 4.25: Calcium hardness rain water ................................................................... 68 Figure 4.26: Calcium hardness hand dug well ............................................................. 69 Figure 4.27: Calcium hardness hand pump borehole ................................................... 69 
x  Figure 4.28: Iron rain water ......................................................................................... 70 Figure 4.29: Iron hand dug well ................................................................................... 71 Figure 4.30: Iron hand pump borehole ........................................................................ 71 Figure 4.31: Sulphate rain water .................................................................................. 72 Figure 4.32: Sulphate hand dug well ........................................................................... 73 Figure 4.33: Sulphate hand pump borehole ................................................................. 73 Figure 4.34: Dissolved oxygen rain water ................................................................... 74 Figure 4.35: Dissolved oxygen hand dug well............................................................. 74 Figure 4.36: Dissolved oxygen hand pump borehole .................................................. 75 Figure 4.37: B.O.D rain water ..................................................................................... 76 Figure 4.38: B.O.D hand dug well ............................................................................... 76 Figure 4.39: B.O.D  hand pump borehole .................................................................... 77 Figure 4.40: Bacterial count rain water ........................................................................ 78 Figure 4.41: Bacterial count hand dug well ................................................................. 78 Figure 4.42: Bacterial count hand pump borehole ....................................................... 79     
xi  LIST OF PLATES Plate 3.1: Moringa tree ................................................................................................. 31 Plate 3.2: Moringa seed................................................................................................ 31 Plate 3.3: Moringa oleifera de-husked seed kernels .................................................... 33 Plate 3.4: Moringa oleifera seed powder ..................................................................... 33    
xii  LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1: Details of Sample Source............................................................................ 34 Table 3.2:  Physical, Chemical and Biological Parameters of Drinking Water ........... 36 Table 4.1 Physical Chemical and Biological Analysis of Rain Water for Sample 1 ... 39 Table 4.2: Physical Chemical and Biological Analysis of Rain Water for Sample 2 .. 40 Table 4.3: Physical Chemical and Biological Analysis of Rain Water for Sample 3 .. 41 Table 4.4: Physical Chemical and Biological Analysis of Rain Water for Sample 4 .. 42 Table 4.5: Physical Chemical and Biological Analysis of Hand Dug Well for Sample 1...................................................................................................................................... 43 Table 4.6: Physical Chemical and Biological Analysis of Hand Dug Well for Sample 2...................................................................................................................................... 44 Table 4.7: Physical Chemical and Biological Analysis of Hand Dug Well for Sample 3...................................................................................................................................... 45 Table 4.8: Physical Chemical and Biological Analysis of Hand Dug Well for Sample 4...................................................................................................................................... 46 Table 4.9:  Physical Chemical and  Biological Analysis of  Hand  Pump  Borehole for Sample 1....................................................................................................................... 47 Table 4.10: Physical Chemical and Biological Analysis of Hand Pump Borehole for Sample 2....................................................................................................................... 48 Table 4.11: Physical Chemical and Biological Analysis of Hand Pump Borehole for Sample 3....................................................................................................................... 49 Table 4.12: Physical Chemical and Biological Analysis of Hand Pump Borehole for Sample 4....................................................................................................................... 50   
Domestic water treatment using moringa oleifera seed powder

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Details

Type Project
Department Civil Engineering
Project ID CVE0129
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
No of Pages 85 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Civil Engineering
    Project ID CVE0129
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    No of Pages 85 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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