ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF SELECTED PLANTS (BITTERLEAF, UTAZI, AND BITTERKOLA LEAF)EXTRACT’S AGAINST FISH PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.2 objectives the study
2.1.1 medicinal plants
2.2.1 antibacterial properties of bitterleaf
2.3.1 antibacterial properties of utazi
2.4 bitter kola leaf
2.4.1 scientific classification
2.4.2 common names
2.4.3 anti-microbial properties of bitter kola leaf
2.5 microbial contamination of fish
2.5.1 common routes of entry of microorganisms
2.6 bacteria associated with farmed fish
2.6.1 vibrio paraheamotyticus and other vibrios
2.6.2 escherichia coli
2.6.3 salmonella spp
2.6.4 staphylococcus aureus
2.2.5 listeria monocytogenes
2.6.6 clostridium botulinum
2.6.7 pseudomomas aeruginosa
2.6.8 aeromonas species
2.6.9 citrobacter freundii
3.0 materials and methods
3.1.1 collection and maintenance of naturally infected fish
3.1.2 collection of medicinal plants
3.2 preparation of plant extracts
3.3 isolation of bacterial strains from infected fish
3.4. identification of pathogenic bacteria.
3.4.1 gram staining
3.4.2. cultural characteristics
3.4.3. morphological characteristics
3.4 biochemical test
3.4.1 catalase test
3.4.2 methyl red test
3.4.3 voges- proskauer (vp) test
3.4.4 indole test
3.4.5 citrate utilization test
3.6 antibacterial activity testing
3.7 antimicrobial susceptibility tests
Aquaculture has been a growing activity for the last 20 years worldwide and this impressive development has been attended by some practices potentially damaging to animal health1. The bacterial infections are considered the major cause of mortality in aquaculture (Grisez et al., 2005). Among the common fish pathogens, A. hydrophila and Y. ruckeri as gram-negative and S. agalactiae, L. garvieae and E. faecalis as grampositive bacteria cause infectious diseases (Buller, 2004). S. agalactiae, L. garvieae and E. faecalis are closely related groups of bacteria that can cause diseases like streptococcosis, lactococcosis, haemorrhagic septicemia and ulcers in fins (Abdul and Haniffa, 2011). Flavobacterium columnare is pathogenic only to freshwater fish species and shows low environmental fitness, when compared with other aquatic bacteria. Even though, this agent is highly virulent to young fish (fry and fingerling), causing skin lesions, and high mortality, generally associated with poor environmental conditions (Grabowshi et al., 2004). Fish are susceptible to several bacterial infections, mainly when reared in high-density conditions. Disease outbreaks elevated the mortality rate and decrease the productivity efficiency, causing high economic loss of the fish farmers. Due to the use of a wide variety of antibiotics, aquaculture has been implicated as potential environment to the development and selection of resistant bacteria and a source of these pathogens to other animals and humans (Hatha et al., 2005 Figueiredo et al., 2006).
Some bacterial fish pathogens are also associated to diseases in humans, making the aquaculture products a potential risk to the customers (zoonotic or food borne diseases) (Yanong and Francis-Floyd, 2006). S. agalactiae is a dangerous pathogen to freshwater and marine fish. The infection is characterized by brain invasion, nervous signs and septicemia (Russo et al., 2006). These bacteria can infect humans, causing mainly pneumonia and meningitis in newborns (Pettersson, 2011). Enteric red mouth disease mostly restricted to salmonids is caused by Y. ruckeri and reddening of mouth and throat is the most common symptom (Austin and Austin, 2007). A. hydrophila is responsible for cases of skin infections, septicemia and gastroenteritis in fish and human (Yu et al., 2007). A. hydrophila, the most common bacterial pathogen in freshwater fish, has been recognized to be the aetiological agent of several distinct pathological conditions including tail/fin rot, motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) or haemorrhagic septicemia and epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) as a primary pathogen.
The continuous use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture has resulted in more resistant bacterial strains in the aquatic environment (Muniruzzaman and Chowdhury, 2004). The large-scale settings of aquatic animal husbandry have resulted in an increased antibiotic resistance in bacteria potentially pathogenic to fish and related environment. Heavy antibiotic used in aquaculture needs to be reduced and replaced with alternative processes for treating fish diseases to avoid the emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and environmental bacteria (Cabello, 2008). The occurrence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria has been described in aquaculture systems (Figueiredo et al., 2006). Regarding the problem of microbial resistance, there is an urgent need to establish the rules to the rational use of antibiotics and the discovery of new drugs and alternative therapies to control bacterial diseases (Castro et al., 2008).
Treatment of bacterial diseases with different herbs has been safely used in organic agriculture, veterinary and human medicine (Direkbusarakom, 2004), and treatments with medicinal plants having antibacterial activity are a potentially beneficial alternative in aquaculture (Abutbul et al., 2005). Since ancient times, medicinal plants have been used for the treatment of common infectious diseases (Rios and Recio, 2005). Medicinal plants as the alternative agents are effective to treat the infectious diseases and mitigate many of side effects that are associated with synthetic antimicrobials. Additionally, the plant-derived phytomedicines provide a cheaper source for treatment and greater accuracy than chemotherapeutic agents in this field (Punitha et al., 2008). The use of alcoholic extracts of herbs may be suggested for the natural administration of antibiotics effective in fish disease control. The ability of some herbs and seaweeds to inhibit activity of bacteria having potential interest as fish pathogens has been documented (Dubber and Harder, 2008). Some of the local herbs and desert plants were reported to inhibit the pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture and referred to limited number of plant species 4. Medicinal plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites such as tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids, which have antimicrobial properties. Many of the spices and herbs used today have been valued for their antimicrobial effects and medicinal powers in addition to their flavour and fragrance qualities (Ravikumar et al., 2010). In India, 500 medicinal plant species are used to pathogenic bacteria. Plants have been used as traditional medicine since time immemorial to control bacterial, viral and fungal diseases. In the recent years, herbs and herbal products plays significant role in fish culture. The usage of heavy antibiotic in aquaculture field needs to be reduced and replaced with alternative process for treating fish diseases (Ravikumar et al., 2010). The medicinal plants may be used as potential and promising drugs against fish pathogens in the organic aquaculture (Abdul et al., 2011).
Therefore, due to increasing the resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics and the cost of modern allopathic medicines, the scientists are now looking for medicinal plants, because most of them are safe, cost less and effective against a wide range of antibiotic resistant microorganisms (Dubber and Harder, 2008). In this view, the present article elucidates about the antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activity of some medicinal plants (herbs) against different microbes for example, bacteria and fungi (Abdul et al., 2011).
1.2 OBJECTIVES THE STUDY
This review focuses on the antimicrobial activities of selected plants (bitterleaf, utazi, and bitterkola leaf) extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria
Specific Objectives include to;
collect and identify the medicinal plants of choice
extract the selected medicinal plants using different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and water reflux.
measure the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the selected plant extracts against isolates the fish pathogenic bacteria.
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