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GLUCAN AND GLUCANASE LEVELS IN IMPROVED SORGHUM VARIETIES DURING MALTING AND THEIR EFFECTS IN BREWING

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(Food Technology Project Topics & Materials)
ABSTRACT
Levels of glucan components (TBG: total glucan, WIBG: water  insoluble glucan and WSBG: water soluble glucan) and glucanase in three improved sorghum varieties (SK5912, KSV8 and ICSV400) during malting and their effects in brewing were investigated using standard methods. Variety ICSV400 had the lowest TBG, WIBG and WSBG levels of 0.298 ± 0.054%, 0.196 ± 0.021% and 0.102 ± 0.015% in its raw samples and 0.187 ± 0.007%, 0.144 ± 0.004% and 0.043 ± 0.006% in malt samples, respectively. Variety SK5912 had the highest TBG, WIBG and WSBG levels of 0.376 ± 0.037%, 0.246 ± 0.03 and 0.130 ± 0.015% in its raw samples and the highest total mean WIBG of 0.167 ± 0.020% in its malt samples, respectively. 

Similarly, variety KSV8 had TBG and WIBG levels of 0.362 ± 0.035% and 0.233 ± 0.023% in its raw samples and the highest TBG and WSBG levels of 0.236 ± 0.030% and 0.076 ± 0.008% in its malt samples. The trend indicated that levels of glucan components in the sorghum varieties depended on their original levels in the raw grains and not on enzymic degradation during malting. However, more WSBG components (~30 – 65%) were degraded than its WIBG counterparts (~20 – 43%) across the sorghum varieties. Endo-β-(1→3:1→4)-glucanase levels in all the sorghum malt varieties consistently increased during the malting period. ICSV400 malts developed the highest total mean enzyme level of 13.122%, SK5912 had 11.207% level while KSV8 malts developed the least level of 8.568%. 

The effects of variety, germination time and variety plus germination time interaction on the TBG, WIBG and (1→3:1→4)- glucanase levels were significant (P ˂ 0.05). However, their effects on the WSBG levels of malt varieties were not significant. Glucan and glucanase levels in the sorghum grain and malt varieties significantly (P ˂ 0.05 and P ˂ 0.01) correlated with other malt quality parameters. On the basis of the results, variety ICSV400 is preferred as malting and brewing raw material to SK5912 and KSV8 varieties.

PAGE
Cover Sheet
Title Page i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication…     …     …     … iv
Acknowledgements v
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables … xii
List of Figures… …. xiii
List of Appendices xiv
List of Abbreviations and Symbols xv
CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study … 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem 1
1.3 Objectives of the Study 2
1.4 Research Hypotheses 3
1.5 Justification of the Study 3
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study… 5

CHAPTER TWO:
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 The Sorghum Grain …     …     …     …     … 7
2.2 Morphology, Anatomy and Chemical Composition  … 8
2.3 Sorghum Malting …     …     …     …     … 14
2.4 Maltable Cereals 16
2.5 Economic Importance … …     ... 18
2.6 Nutritional Value 18
2.7 Uses of Sorghum 24
2.8 Cereal Glucan and their Degradation during Malting and Brewing  … 26
2.9 Comparative Biochemical and Physiological C hanges in
Sorghum and Barley during Germination 29

CHAPTER THREE:
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Source of Materials 33
3.2 Analytical Methods 36
3.2.1 Analyses of Grain Samples …. 36
3.2.2 Moisture Content …. 36
3.2.3 Germination Energy …. …. 37
3.2.4 Germination Index …. 37
3.2.5 Total Nitrogen … 37
3.2.6 Crude Protein … 39
3.2.7 Total Glucan 39
3.2.8 Theory and Principle of Assay Procedure 40
3.2.9 Assay Procedure for Grain Glucan Determination … 40
3.2.10 Reagent Blanks 43
3.2.11 Glucose Standards 43
3.2.12 Glucose Oxidase/peroxidase Reagent … 43
3.2.13 Water- insoluble Glucan 44
3.2.14 Water-soluble Glucan 44
3.3 Malting Procedure …     ... 44
3.3.1 Steeping 44
3.3.2 Germination …. 46
3.3.3 Kilning 46
3.4 Analyses of Malt Samples 48
3.4.1 Moisture Content …. …. 48
3.4.2 Malting Loss  … 48
3.4.3 Total Nitrogen … …. …. 48
3.4.4 Total Glucan …. 49
3.4.5 Theory and Principle of Assay Procedure 49
3.4.6 Assay Procedure for Malt Glucan  … 49
3.4.7 Water- insoluble Glucan 50
3.4.8 Water-soluble Glucan 50
3.4.9 Malt Endo-Glucanase Activity 50
3.4.10 Theory and Principle of Assay Procedure 50
3.4.11 Extraction of Crude Malt Glucanase 51
3.4.12 Assay Procedure for Malt Endo-Glucanase… 51
3.4.13 Reaction Blank 53
3.4.14 Precipitant Solution 54
3.4.15 Extraction Buffer 54
3.5 Mashing and Wort Production 54
3.6 Analyses of Wort Samples 56
3.6.1 Filtration Rate … 56
3.6.2 Specific Viscosity 56
3.6.3 Reducing Sugar 57
3.6.4 Reagent Solutions 57
3.6.5 Theory and Principle of Assay Procedure 58
3.6.6 Assay Procedure 58
3.6.7 Specific Gravity 59
3.6.8 Original Extract 59
3.7 Experimental Design  … 60
3.8 Statistical AnalysesSubscribe to access this work and thousands more
GLUCAN AND GLUCANASE LEVELS IN IMPROVED SORGHUM VARIETIES DURING MALTING AND THEIR EFFECTS IN BREWING

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Type Project
Department Food Technology
Project ID FTE0140
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
No of Pages 156 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Food Technology
    Project ID FTE0140
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    No of Pages 156 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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