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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MEDICATED SOAPS ON SOME SELECTED BACTERIA FROM THE SKIN

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:40
  • Methodology:ANOVA
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Microbiology Project Topics & Materials)

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MEDICATED SOAPS ON SOME SELECTED BACTERIA FROM THE SKIN

ABSTRACT

Four medicated soaps (Ghana soap, Tetmosol, Beneks’, and Crusader) were investigated for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis. A total number of thirty (30) students of Western Delta University, Oghara, Delta state, 15 males and 15 females were skin swabbed with sterile swab sticks. Identification of the bacterial species was by standard microbiological techniques. Crusader soap had the mean highest antibacterial activity (15.3 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus from males, 17.5mm against Staphylococcus aureus from females, 10.7mm against Staphylococcus epidermidis from females and 13.0mm against Staphylococcus epidermidis from males) while Beneks’ exhibited the least zone of inhibition 9.5mm against Staphylococcus aureus from females, 3.3mm against Staphylococcus epidermidis from males and 1.2mm against Staphylococcus epidermidis from females except for one occasion where Tetmosol exhibited the lowest antibacterial activity with the mean zone of inhibition measuring 7.3mm. Non-significant differences (P>0.05) were observed, except on one occasion were a P value of 0.0093 was observed. Majority of the medicated soaps analysed showed satisfactory antibacterial activity. The use of medicated soaps is thus recommended in homes, schools, offices and hospitals as a way of minimizing or stopping infections that are hitherto spread through contact.

  TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction -

1.1 Aims and Objectives

1.2 Hypothesis - -

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review -

2.1 Emergence of Antimicrobial Resistance and the Rationale for performing

Susceptibility testing -

2.2 Importance of Medicated Soaps

2.3 The bacteria flora of humans

2.4 The benefits of normal flora

2.5 Effect of Skin Cleansers and Cosmetics on Skin pH and Flora

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Study area - - - - - -

3.1 Soap sample collection - - - -

3.1.1 Active ingredients of soap samples as per label disclosure

3.2 Sterilization - - - - -

3.3 Preparation of Disks and Soap Samples -

3.4 Isolation of Microorganisms - -

3.5 Cultural Morphology and Gram Morphology

3.6 Biochemical Test for Identification of Isolates

3.6.1 Coagulase test - - - -

3.6.2 Catalase test - - - -

3.6.3 Citrate test - - - -

3.7 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing -

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Result - - - -

4.1 Results from isolation of microorganism

4.2 Results of Colonial morphology, Gram Reaction and Biochemical tests carried out

4.3 Results from the statistical analysis - - - - - -

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Discussion -

5.1 Conclusion -

REFERENCES -

Appendix I -

Appendix II -

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Percentage growth after 48hrs of incubation at 37˚C   -

Figure 2: Total percentage growth after 48hrs of incubation at 37˚C

Figure I: The mean zone of inhibition (mm) by the four medicated soaps on Staphylococcus aureus

isolates from males -

Figure II: The mean zone of inhibition (mm) by the four medicated soaps on Staphylococcus

epidermidis isolates from males - -

Figure III: The mean zone of inhibition (mm) by the four medicated soaps on Staphylococcus aureus

isolates from females - -

Figure IV: The mean zone of inhibition (mm) by the four medicated soaps on Staphylococcus

epidermidis isolates from females -

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Soap samples and their active ingredients

Table 2: Result of colonial morphology, Gram reaction and biochemical tests

Table 3: Staphylococcus sp. growth on Mannitol salt agar (Growth Rate)

LIST OF PLATES

Plate 1 Sterile Swab Sticks used - - -

Plate 2 Growth of Staphylococcus spp. on MSA -

Plate 3 Tubes of a biochemical reaction - -

Plate 4 Zones of inhibition caused by the various soaps

Plate 5 Beneks Fashion Fair Medicated Soap -

Plate 6 Crusader Medicated Soap - -

Plate 7 Tetmosol Medicated soap - -

Plate 8 Ghana soap -

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Soaps and other cleansing agents have been around for quite a long time. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. Bacteria are very diverse and present in soil, water, sewage and on human body and are of great importance with reference to health (Johnson et al., 2002). Transient bacteria are deposited on the skin surface from environmental sources and causes skin infections. Examples of such bacteria are Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Fluit et al., 2001) and Staphylococcus aureus (Higaki et al., 2000). The microbial diversity of human micro biota is determined by various factors, such as transmission of non-resident microbes, genetic predisposition, host demographic characteristics, lifestyle and environmental characteristics (Ehlers et al., 2010) and (Rosenthal et al., 2011). Humans have a complex interaction with resident microbes as they help us to digest food, and keep us healthy by competing with pathogens and educating our immune system (Blaser et al., 2009) and (Dethlefsen et al., 2007). In 1961 the U.S Public Health Service recommendation directed that personnel wash their hands with soap and water for 1 - 2 minutes before and after client contact. Hand hygiene and prevention of infection has been well recognized (HWG, 1999). The importance of hand hygiene is also there for food handlers. Food handler includes those who deal, deliver and serve food (Horton and Parker, 2002). Dr Elaine Larson published an extensive review and concluded that hand hygiene and reduced transmission of infections is a convincing fact (Larson et al., 1986). Overuse of chemicals like triclosan has been suggested to cause sensitive bacteria to evolve resistance to its antibacterial actions. Should any antibiotic not be discovered that works similarly to triclosan, this antibiotic's effectiveness to combat infections will be reduced since people will be harbouring resistant bacteria as result of using soaps containing Triclosan (Chuanchen et al., 2001). The importance of hand washing is more crucial when it is associated to health care workers because of possible cross contaminating of bacteria that may be pathogenic or opportunistic (Richards et al., 1999). Hand hygiene and prevention of infection through the use of medicated soaps has been well recognized. A large number of chemical compounds have the ability to inhibit the growth and metabolism of microorganisms or kill them. The number of chemicals is enormous, probably at least 10,000 with 1,000 commonly used in the hospital and homes. Chemicals exist as solids, liquids and gases. Of the many groups of chemicals used to reduce or destroy microbes important groups include hydrogen, phenols, soaps, detergents, ammonia compounds, alcohols, heavy metals, acids and certain special compounds. Disinfection, decontamination, antisepsis/sanitization and sterilization, just naming a few are terms that describe the process of cleaning by either soaps/detergents or other cleaning agents. Numerous cleaning agents are available in the market, which are presented in various forms with distinct formulation. Triclosan, trichlorocarbanilide and Pchloro-in-xylenol (PCMX/Chloroxylenol) are the commonly used anti-bacteria’s in medicated soaps. These are generally only contained at preservation level unless the product is clearly marked as antibacterial, antiseptic, or germicidal (Larson et al., 1989). Scrubbing body or hands, particularly with soaps is the first of defence against bacteria and other pathogens that can cause colds the Flu, skin infection and even deadly communicable diseases (Kimel, 1996). Conceptually, many people consider that an antimicrobial portion of soaps is effective at preventing communicable disease.

But now researchers highlight that too much of it can have the opposite effect spreading disease/infection instead of preventing them (Poole, 2002). Over-utilization of medicated soaps might result in antimicrobial resistance and even rendering an individual more vulnerable to microbial attacks such as opportunistic skin infections (White and McDermolt, 2001).

1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aims and objectives of this project work are:

1. To determine and compare the antimicrobial activity of the medicated soaps (Tetmosol, Beneks’, Ghana soap, and Crusader) against isolates from males and females

2. To compare the number of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from 15 males and 15 females students in Western Delta University, Oghara community.

3. To determine the soap with the highest antibacterial efficacy to any of the Staphylococcus spp. obtained from either gender.

 1.2 HYPOTHESIS

HO: There is no difference between the antibacterial activities the medicated soaps; thus the P value is not significant

H1: There is a difference between the antibacterial activities of the medicated soaps; thus the P value is significant


A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF MEDICATED SOAPS ON SOME SELECTED BACTERIA FROM THE SKIN

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Details

Type Project
Department Microbiology
Project ID MCB0281
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 40 Pages
Methodology ANOVA
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Microbiology
    Project ID MCB0281
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 40 Pages
    Methodology ANOVA
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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