This project work is on the bleaching of palm oil using activated charcoal.
The charcoal used for this work was made from pieces of animal bone by carbonization method. It was then activated into two different samples. Firstly, the basic sample was activated using anaphoric acid (H2 s04) while the other was activated by just heating as a control for the experiment; both at a constant temperature of 5000c and approximate time of 2hours.
They were both size reduced into fines and sieved into particle 3ye of 150um portion of the crude palm oil was degummed and neutralized for bleaching. Each interval of bleaching with both the acid activated and the ordinary activated charcoal was 8mins and temperature of 1500c over a hot plate, and subsequent filtration of the solution.
A spectrophotometer was used to measure the absorbance of the oils (crude and bleached) at selected wave length of 480Um. This was converted as the degree of colour reduction expressed in percentages.
Results obtained showed that optimum quantity of the charcoal for bleaching is 5% by weight, of the oil, which gives a percentage colour reduction as 97. 14% for the acid activated and 93.57% for the calcinated sample.
Also, the characterization of both the original oil and the bleaching oil showed that the later has appreciable properties. Hence colour reduction was observable by naked eyes.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Letter of Transmittal
1.3Scope of study
2.1.0Chemical composition of palm oil
2.1.4Compositions and standards of palm oil
2.2.0Spoilage factors of palm oil
2.3.0Refining of creebe palm oil
2.3.5Chemical bleaching method
2.3.7Bleaching by adsorption
2.4.1Uses of adsorption
2.6.4Molecular screening activated carbon
2.6.5Synthetic polymeric adsorbents
2.7.1Properties of charcoal
2.7.3Methods of charcoal activation
2.7.4Properties of activated charcoal
2.7.5Chemical properties of activated charcoal
2.7.6 Physical properties of activated charcoal
2.7.7Uses of activated charcoal
3.2.0Charcoal activation using acid
3.2.1Charcoal activation by heat treatment
3.3.0Degumming of Palm oil
3.4.0Bleaching of palm oil
3.5.0Characterization of palm oil
3.5.3Free fatty acid
3.5.6Process flow chart
4.1.0Effect of bleaching sample
4.2.0Effect of temperature on bleaching
4.3.0Colour observation at absorbance
4.4.0Concise table for characterization
Table of nomenclature
THE BLEACHING OF PALM OIL USING ACTIVATED CHARCOAL
ABSTRACT This project work is on the bleaching of palm oil using activated charcoal. The charcoal used for this work was made from pieces of animal bone by carbonization method. It was then activated into two different samples. Firstly, the basic sample was activated using anaphoric acid (H2 s04) while the other was activated by just heating as a... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT This project was carried using activated local form local corporation Enugu, and the rate of bleaching of palm oil using spectrophotometer by measuring the absorbance. It was also performed to check the suitability of local as a bleaching agent for palm oil. The local from local corporation... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT The adsorptive removal of the colour pigment (due to high content of carotenoids) from palm oil using ortho-phosphoric acid activated kaolin clay was investigated in this research. The clay was activated at different acid concentrations to improve its adsorptive... Continue Reading
The introduction Methodology Materials needed Characteristics of bacillus that can produce amylase isolated from Palm kernel waste water in the production of local palm oil Characteristics of bacillus specie that have the potential to bioflocculate isolated from Palm kernel waste water in the production of local palm oil Aim and objectives of the... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT A study of the effect of biochar (charcoal) on microbial colonization and heavy metal concentration in polluted soil was conducted for eighth (8) weeks between September to October, during the cropping season of 2018, at the faculty of Agriculture, Kogi State University, Anyigba. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of biochar... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT Air quality continues to be among the top environmental concerns in Nigeria. In nigeria, where majority of the rural population uses charcoal, very little is known about the impacts of the life-cycle of the fuel on the... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT After clearing for crops, logging is the most important human-driven factor responsible for the reduction of forest cover in sub-Saharan Africa. In general, wood represents about 86% of household energy consumption and the demand is expected to rise to 45% over the next 30 years due to the population growth and increasing needs in this... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT This project was carried out using coal sample from Onyeama coal mine Enugu, Enugu State.Activated coal was produced by carbonizing the coal and activating it using phosphoric acid at a temperature of 5500c. the degree of bleaching of raw palm oil was monitored using spectronic meter through absorbance measurement. The essence was to... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT This project was carried out using coal sample from Onyeama coal mine Enugu, Enugu State. Activated coal was produced by carbonizing the coal and activating it using phosphoric acid at a temperature of 5500c. the degree of bleaching of raw palm oil was monitored using spectronic meter through... Continue Reading
ABSTRCT The experiment was carried out to analyze comparatively coal and coconut activated carbon. The coal sample used in bituminous and with density of 1300kg 1m3 tile coconut shell was used. The coal and coconut shell was first activated using phosphoric acid. The activated coal and... Continue Reading