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NEUTRALIZATION OF THE LETHAL EFFECT OF BITIS ARIETANS VENOMBY EUPHORBIA COTINIFOLIA LEAF EXTRACT

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  • Pages:42
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Pharmaceutical Science Project Topics & Materials)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS PAGE

TITLE PAGE - - - - - - - - - i

DECLARATION - - - - - - - - ii

CERTIFICATION - - - - - - - - iii

DEDICATION - - - - - - - - iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - - - - - - - v

TABLE OF CONTENT - - - - - - - vi

LIST OF TABLES - - - - - - - - ix

LIST OF FIGURES - - - - - - - ix

ABSTRACT - - - - - - - - - x

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW


1.1 TRADITIONAL MEDICINE - - - - - - -1

1.2 MODERN MEDICINE - - - - - - - -4

1.2.1 The Role of Plants in Drug Development - - - - -4

1.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY PLANT   - - - - - -5

1.3.1 Scientific Classification and Folkloric Use of Euphorbia cotinifolia -6

1.3.2 Medicinal Use of  Euphorbia cotinifolia - - - - -6

1.4 SNAKE  - - - - - - - - - -7

1.4.1 Snake Bite - - - - - - - - -7

1.5 VIPER (Puff adder) (Bitis arietans) - - - - - -8

1.5.1 Description of Bitis arietans - - - - - - -8

1.6 VENOM - - - - - - - - - -9

1.6.1 Envenomation Symptoms - - - - - - -10

1.6.2 Antivenom - - - - - - - - -11

1.6.3 Limitations of Antivenom - - - - - - -12


1.7 AIM AND OBJECTIVES - - - - - - -12


CHAPTER TWO

MATERIALS AND METHODS


2.1 MATERIALS - - - - - - - - -13

2.2 EQUIPMENTS - - - - - - - - -13

2.3 COLLECTION OF PLANT MATERIALS - - - - -13

2.4 PREPARATION AND EXTRACTION OF PLANT MATERIALS - -14

2.5 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING - - - - - -14

2.6 LABORATORY ANIMALS - - - - - - -15

2.7 Bitis arietans VENOM SAMPLE - - - - - -16

2.8 ACUTE TOXICITY (LD50) OF THE EXTRACT - - - -16

2.9 ACUTE TOXICITY ( LD50) OF THE VENOM - - - - -16

2.10 NEUTRALIZATION OF Bitis arietans VENOM BY 

Euphorbia cotinifolia LEAF  EXTRACT - - - - -17













CHAPTER THREE

RESULTS

3.1 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING - - - - - -18

3.2 ACUTE TOXICITY (LD50) OF Euphorbia cotinifolia - - - -18

3.3 ACUTE TOXICITY (LD50) OF Bitis arietans VENOM - - - -18

3.4 IN VIVO NEUTRALIZATION OF Bitis arietans VENOM BY 

Euphorbia cotinifolia       LEAF EXTRACT - - - - -18


CHAPTER FOUR

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


4.1 PHYTOCHEMICALS CONSTITUENTS- - - -- - -25

4.2 LD50 OF THE EXTRACT - - - - - - -26

4.3 LD50 OF THE Bitis arietans VENOM - - - - -26

4.4 IN VIVO NEUTRALIZATION OF Bitis arietans VENOM BY 

Euphorbia cotinifolia LEAF EXTRACT- - - - -26

4.5 CONCLUSION - - - - - - - - -29

4.6 RECOMMENDATION - - - - - - - -29

REFERENCES- - - - - - - - - -30









LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PAGE

Table 1: Phytochemical Analysis of E. cotinifolia Leaf Extract - - -19

Table 2: Acute Toxicity (LD50) of E. cotinifolia Leaf Extract - - -20

Table 3: Acute Toxicity (LD50) of Bitis arietans Venom by E. cotinifolia

              Leaf Extract - - - - - -21


Table 4: In Vivo Neutralization of Anti-Venom Effect in First Protocol - -23

Table 5: In Vivo Neutralization of Anti-Venom Effect in Second Protocol - -24


LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE PAGE

Figure 1: Neutralization of Bitis arietans Venom by Euphorbia  cotinifolia Leaf Extract -22






ABSTRACT


Snake bite is an important health challenge in Northern Nigeria and especially in the North central zone. Problems with modern treatment have led the local populace to use numerous plant species to treat snake bite bites. Euphorbia cotinifolia is one of the plants reportedly used in traditional medicine against snake bite. The aim of this study is to evaluate the neutralizing potential of Euphorbia cotinifolia leaf extract against Bitis arietans. Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract was carried out and the LD50 was determined according to the method of Lorke. LD50 of the venom was determined through probit analysis. Two protocols were used to evaluate the venom neutralizing ability of the extract at 250, 500, 1000 and 2500 mg/kg dose levels respectively. In the first protocol, the animals were challenged with venom and immediately treated with the extract. In the second protocol, animals were pretreated with extract for five days and then challenged with the venom. The result of the phytochemical screening show that the extract contains alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides and saponins, and that the LD50 is more than 5000 mg/kg. The venom neutralizing potential of the extract was statistically not significant at (p < 0.05) when the animals were challenged with the venom before the extract.. When the animals were pretreated with the extract before being challenged with the venom, the neutralizing potency was statistically significant at (p < 0.05). However the extract produced an increase in mean survival time and protection fold but could not protect the animals from death in both protocols.  These results suggest that the ethanolic extract is orally safe in laboratory animals and possesses significant antivenom potential against Bitis arietans venom Thereby authenticates its ethno medicinal use.

NEUTRALIZATION OF THE LETHAL EFFECT OF BITIS ARIETANS VENOMBY EUPHORBIA COTINIFOLIA LEAF EXTRACT

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Details

Type Project
Department Pharmaceutical Science
Project ID PHS0016
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
No of Pages 42 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Pharmaceutical Science
    Project ID PHS0016
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    No of Pages 42 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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