The idea of universal education was first noted in 1955 when the universal Primary education scheme was inaugurated by the government of western Nigeria. The Eastern Nigeria government launched its own universal primary education in 1957. In Northern Nigeria education was provided free by government in a bid to make children attend school (Adeyemi, 2007). Thus, at its onset, the universal primary education scheme had been taken by regional government. There was no Federal government intervention until 1976 when the universal primary education (U.P.E) was launched to cover the whole country.
Education is one vital instructions in development. According to the National Policy on Education (1998) “Education in Nigeria is an instrument “per excellence” for effecting National development certainly. What Nigeria in needs in this 21st century to turn her economy around is not extended primary or elementary education but a basic education programme that will ensure that every Nigerian youth on graduation is sufficiently equipped with knowledge, skills and experiences required for vital entry into one occupation in the world of work, whether college bound or not (Ayabolu, 2000). The universal basic education (UBE) programme of the Federal republic of Nigeria was however launched by President Olusegun Obasanjo 30th September 1999. The UBE programme as spelt out in the implementation guidelines, aims at achieving the following specific objectives:
Developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion. The provision of free, universal basic education for every Nigerian child of school going age. Reducing drastically the incidence of drop out from the formal school system Universal Basic Education is the transmission of fundamental knowledge to all facets of Nigerian society from generation. It has three main components Universal Basic and Education. Universal connotes a programme that is meant for all facets of the society, the rich, the poor, the physically fit and the disabled, the brilliant fit, the dull, the regular students and the dropouts including every other individual that is ready to acquire knowledge. The term “Basic” relates to the base, take off point, fundamental essential spring board, bottom line, they are required and of course expected it therefore shows that basic education is the starting point in the acquisition of knowledge. Without basic education, higher education cannot be acquired. It therefore implies that the basic education is mandatory which is essential for life. Enoch and Okpede (2000) described it as the form of education which is essential for life. They also saw UBE as the form of education which must equip an individual with necessary skills to survive in his environment. It should be a practical and functional education. The idea of education connotes transmission of knowledge from generation to generation. In the UBE programme, it is expected that theoretical and practical work or knowledge transmitted to learners in its simplistic form. This involves starting from the scratch and being able to carry the learner along. This education is the aggregate of all the process by which a child or young adult develops the abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviours, which are of positive value to the society in which he lives (Amuchic, Aotibe and Audu, 2015 in Fafunwa, 2015).Factors Affecting the Implementation of Universal Basic Education in Bauchi Local Government Area