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Comparative biochemical effect ofoleanolic acid and rutin on acute kidney injury in wistar rats

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  • Pages:94
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Bio-Chemistry Project Topics & Materials)

ABSTRACT

The inability of an organism to efficiently remove excess waste from the body have been a major issues attached to acute kidney injury (AKI) which is the most common cause of organ dysfunction. Oleanolic acid and rutin which are from the families of saponin and flavonoid respectively have been discovered to possess certain biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-viral and nephroprotective activities that can help in therapeutic management of acute kidney injury. In this study, the nephroprotective effect of rutin and oleanolic acid was carried out as well as the comparative therapeutic effect of the phytochemicals on renal biomarkers and electrolytes imbalance in the serum and urine of albino rats induced with acute kidney injury. Female wistar rats (n=25) weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into 5 groups; sham, Ischemia reperfused (I/R) group, while the remaining 3 groups were pretreated orally with a single dose of 10 mg/kg oleanolic acid, 20 mg/kg rutin and 0.143 mg/kg moduretic (Amiloride HCl  and hydrochlorothiazide) respectively. Afterwards, ischemia injury was performed for 45 minutes and they were reperfused for 24 hours. Blood and urine samples were collected after reperfusion for biochemical analyses. The effect of rutin and oleanolic acid on renal biomarkers and electrolytes, albumin level and alkaline phosphatase activity were assessed in the serum and urine of the animals. The results indicated that there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the level of all the biomarkers and most of the electrolytes as well as significant (p<0.05) decrease in the level of carbonate, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase activity in the I/R group compared with the sham. In the urine, the result showed that there was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the level of uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, calcium, potassium and chloride levels while the sodium level was significantly increased. Pre-treatment with oleanolic acid and rutin were able to reverse most of the effect above in the serum and the urine of the treated groups with oleanolic acid showing better therapeutic effect than rutin.   The nephroprotective activity of oleanolic acid and rutin against ischemia reperfusion injury through regulation of electrolyte imbalance and renal biomarkers was affirmed with oleanolic acid exhibiting more therapeutic effect than rutin.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Content

Page

 

Title page

I

 

Abstract

Ii

 

Certification

Iv

 

Dedication

V

 

Acknowledgement

Vi

 

Table of content

Vii

 

List of figures

Xiii

 

List of tables

Xiv

 

List of plates

Xv

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0

INTRODUCTION

1

1.1

Background

1

1.2

Justification

3

1.3

Aims and objectives

4

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0

LITERATURE REVIEW

5

2.1

The kidney

5

2.1.1

Part of the kidney and their function

6

2.1.2

General function of the kidney

7

2.1.3

Kidney biomarkers and renal function tests

8

2.1.4

Ischemia reperfusion injury

11

2.1.5

Nephroischemia and effect on the body system

14

2.1.6

Recent research on the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of nephroischemia

15

2.2

Phytochemicals

17

2.2.1

Saponin

18

2.2.1.1

Classes of saponins

19

2.2.1.2

Sources of saponin

21

2.2.2

Oleanolic acid

23

2.2.2.1

Pharmacological activities of olealonic acid

23

2.2.2.1.1

Cytochrome p450 enzyme inhibition activity

23

2.2.2.1.2

Anti-inflammatory activity

23

2.2.2.1.3

Anti-cancer activity

24

2.2.2.1.4

Anti-fertility activity

24

2.2.2.1.5

Anti-hyperlipidaemia activity

24

2.2.2.1.6

Hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activity

25

2.2.2.1.7

Hepatoprotective activity

25

2.2.3

Flavonoids

26

2.2.3.1

Sources of flavonoids

27

2.2.3.2

Classes of flavonoids

28

2.2.3.3

Therapeutic use of flavonoids

29

2.2.4

Rutin

31

2.2.4.1

Pharmacological activities of rutin

31

2.2.4.1.1

Hepatoprotective activity

32

2.2.4.1.2

Anti-hypercholesterolamic activity

32

2.2.4.1.3

Nephroprotective activity

33

2.2.4.1.4

Antidiabetic activity

34

2.2.4.1.5

Cardioprotective activity

35

2.2.4.1.6

Antibacterial activity

36

2.2.4.1.7

Antifungal activity

37

2.2.4.1.8

Antiviral activity

37

2.2.4.1.9

Antiarthritic activity

37

2.3

Oxidative stress

38

2.3.1

Free radical formation in the body systems

39

2.3.2

Antioxidants role in scavenging free radical

41

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

3.0

MATERIAL AND METHODS

44

3.1

Materials

44

3.1.1

Chemicals and reagents

44

3.1.2

Animals

44

3.2

Methods


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Details

Type Project
Department Bio-Chemistry
Project ID BCH0130
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
No of Pages 94 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Bio-Chemistry
    Project ID BCH0130
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    No of Pages 94 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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