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The effect of rainfall on the quality of hand dug well water

  • Type:Project
  • Pages:70
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Civil Engineering Project Topics & Materials)

                   ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of rainfall on the physical, chemical and bacteriological quality 

of some selected hand-dug well water consumed by students of Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti. 

To this effect, six (6) samples from three (3) hand-dug well used, labeled (Ab, Bb, Cb & Aa, Ba, 

Ca) indicating before and after rainfall respectively were collected and examined for both the 

bacteriological and physio-chemical parameters. The bacteriological parameter is E-coliform, the 

physio-chemical parameters included: colour, turbidity, temperature, conductivity, pH, total 

dissolved solids, total suspended solids, total hardness, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and 

nitrate.

Tested samples were subjected to comparation with WHO and NSDWQ standards. Results 

revealed that hand dug wells in the study area contain high coliform counts with respect to the 

WHO (2011) and NSDWQ (2007) drinking water guidelines, this indicates bacteriological 

pollution of water sources.

        TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CERTIFICATION........................................................................................................ii 

ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................iii 

DEDICATION.............................................................................................................. iv 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .......................................................................................... v 

TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................vi-vii 

LIST OF TABLES .....................................................................................................viii 

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................... ix 

CHAPTER ONE ......................................................................................................... 1 

1.0 INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................1 

1.1. Background of the study .........................................................................................1 

1.2. Aim of the study.......................................................................................................4 

1.3. Objectives of the study.............................................................................................4 

1.4. Plan of the study…………………………………………………………………...5 

CHAPTER TWO...........................................................................................................6 

2.0. Literature review..................................................................................................... .6

2.1. Groundwater Supply and Sanitation Choices.......................................................... 6 

2.1.1. Groundwater supplies ...........................................................................................6 

2.1.2 Types of sanitation and their choices.................................................................... .7 

2.2. Groundwater Quality ..............................................................................................10 

2.3 Factors Influencing Groundwater Quality ................................................................12 

2.3.1. Geology of groundwater .................................................................................... ..12 

2.3.1.1 Nature of aquifer .................................................................................................12 

2.3.1.2 Aquifer vulnerability to pollution and risks to groundwater supplies .................15 

2.3.2. On-site sanitation systems......................................................................................16 

2.3.3. Impact of poor solid waste management on groundwater quality .........................18 

2.4. Effect of distance from pollution source on groundwater quality ............................18 

2.5. Risk of contamination of groundwater supplies by on-site sanitation .....................20 

2.6. Measuring Water Quality......................................................................................... 21 

2.6.1. Microbiological Parameters ..................................................................................23 

2.6.2. Physicochemical parameter ............................................................................... 24

2.7. Health and Aesthetics ........................................................................................... 31 

2.7.1. Health................................................................................................................. 32 

2.7.2. Aesthetic ............................................................................................................32 

2.8. Groundwater Management ...................................................................................33 

CHAPTER THREE………………………………………………………………....38

3.0. Materials and method…………………………………………………………....38 

3.1. Study area………………………………………………………………………..38 

3.2. Collection of water samples……………………………………………………..38 

3.3. Lab analysis……………………………………………………………………...40 

3.3.1. Temperature……………………………………………………………………41 

3.3.2. Colour………………………………………………………………………….41 

3.3.3. Appearance and odour…………………………………………………………42 

3.3.4. Total Alkalinity………………………………………………………………...43 

 3.3.5. Chloride………………………………………………………………………..44 

3.3.6. Turbidity………………………………………………………………………...44 

3.3.7. Electrical conductivity…………………………………………………………..45 

3.3.8. Total suspended solid……………………………………………………………46 

3.3.9. Total Dissolved solid…………………………………………………………… 47 

3.3.10. Total solid………………………………………………………………………48 

3.3.11. Total Hardness………………………………………………………………….49 

3.3.12. Nitrate…………………………………………………………………………..54 

3.3.13. Bacteriological………………………………………………………………….55 

CHAPTER FOUR……………………………………………………………………..57

4.0. Result and Discussion……………………………………………………………...57 

4.1. Result of Samples collected………………………………………………………..58 

CHAPTER FIVE……………………………………………………………………....67

5.0. Conclusion and Recommendation…………………………………………………67 

5.1. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………67 

5.2. Recommendation…………………………………………………………………..68 

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………69

             LIST OF TABLES 

Table 1: Drinking Water Quality Guidelines for the WHO………………22 

Table 2: Location and Codes for collected samples………………………40 

Table 3: Qualitative description of odour…………………………………42 

Table 4: Hardness equivalents (for drinking water)………………………49 

Table 5: Characteristics of sampled Hand dug wells……………………...57 

Table 6: Result of sample for protected well……………………………...58 

Table 7: Result of sample for semi-protected well………………………...59 

Table 8: Result of sample for un-protected well…………………………..60 

Table 9: Comparison of physico-chemical parameter of hand-dug well water 

quality with WHO drinking water guidelines ……………………………..61

The effect of rainfall on the quality of hand dug well water

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Details

Type Project
Department Civil Engineering
Project ID CVE0109
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
No of Pages 70 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Civil Engineering
    Project ID CVE0109
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    No of Pages 70 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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