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Corrosion Studies of Mild Steel in Biodiesel Obtained from Ghee Butter (Mann Shanu)

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  • Pages:53
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Chemical Engineering Project Topics & Materials)

It is of no doubt that one day, fossil fuels, which the whole world highly depends on, will come to a halt in a few decades to come. To this reason, researches have been geared towards alternative sources of energy: biodiesel, a form of renewable energy (energy that can be regenerated once used up), is one that has been made known and being tested in some parts of the world. Due to the fact that biodiesel is hygroscopic (absorbs water readily from the atmosphere), as well as other factors, before biodiesel is used in diesel engines (which are mostly composed of metals), it is advisable that the biodiesel undergoes metallic corrosion test. Hence, this has led to the motivation to carry out this research.

            In this research project, biodiesel was produced from Ghee Butter (referred to as Mann Shanu in Northern Nigeria), which was obtained from Jimeta Ultra-modern market, Jimeta-Yola, Adamawa State. In the laboratory, the Ghee butter was first purified in order to remove moisture; it was then reacted with alcohol in esterification reaction (to reduce Free Fatty Acids, FFA) and trans-esterification reaction (to produce biodiesel). Two samples of biodiesel (sample 1 and sample 2), having percentage yield of 41.5% and 39.5% respectively, were produced. Physical properties of biodiesel compared to the mineral diesel (such as density, viscosity etc.) were determined and it was observed that the biodiesel produced exhibited some similarities with the mineral diesel. Sample 1 exhibited higher viscosity at lower and higher temperatures compared to sample 2. The API gravity for all the samples studied including the mineral diesel was 34.97.    Heating values of the diesel and biodiesel samples were 37.15, 36.50, and 43.80 MJ/Kg for sample 1, sample 2 and diesel, respectively. Cloud points obtained for sample 1, sample 2 and diesel were 5, 6 and -30C, respectively. Corrosion study of mild steel in the obtained biodiesel, which lasted for fifteen days, was carried out. Generally, sample 1 showed more corrosiveness compared to sample 2, while diesel was least corrosive. At lower temperature, sample 1 was the least corrosive, while sample 2 was more corrosive. The result obtained showed that the obtained biodiesel samples were closely matched with that of mineral diesel and can be used as alternative for mineral diesel. 


Abstract iii

Acknowledgements. v

List of Tables. vi

List of Figures. viii

List of Equations. ix

1.    Introduction. 1

1.1.     Background and Motivation. 1

1.2.     Advantages of Using Biodiesel 3

1.3.     Aim and Objectives. 4

1.4.     Scope of the Project 4

2.    Literature Review.. 6

2.1.     Brief History on Using Biodiesel 6

2.2.     Biodiesel Feedstock. 7

2.2.1.      Edible Oil 7

2.2.2.      Non-edible Oil 9

2.2.3.      Waste Oil 10

2.3.     Ghee Butter (Mann Shanu) 11

2.4.     Production of Biodiesel and Reactions Involved. 12

2.5.     Corrosion of Mild Steel in Biodiesel 13

3.    Materials and Methodology. 15

3.1.     Materials. 15

3.1.1.      Feedstock. 15

3.1.2.      Apparatus for Purification and Esterification Process\ 16

3.1.3.      Apparatus for Trans-esterification Process. 17

3.1.4.      Other Materials. 18

3.1.5.      Reagents. 18

3.2.     Methodology. 19

3.2.1.      Purification of the Ghee Butter 19

3.2.2.      Two-step Esterification. 19

3.2.3.      Alkali Trans-esterification. 20

3.2.4.      Percentage (%) Yield. 21

3.2.5.      Specific and API Gravity. 22

3.2.6.      Viscosity. 22

3.2.7.      Density. 24

3.2.8.      Pour & Cloud Point 24

3.2.9.      Corrosion Study of Mild Steel in the Obtained Biodiesel 25

4.    Results and Discussion. 27

4.1.     Obtained Biodiesel and Mineral Diesel Properties. 27

4.1.1.      Viscosity. 28

4.2.     Corrosion Studies. 30

5.    Summary and Conclusion. 33

References. 34

Appendix A: Initial Masses of Mild Steels Used. 36

Appendix B: Result Days of Corrosion Studies. 37

Appendix C: Weight-loss and Corrosion Rate Result

Corrosion Studies of Mild Steel in Biodiesel Obtained from Ghee Butter (Mann Shanu)

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Details

Type Project
Department Chemical Engineering
Project ID CNG0301
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
No of Pages 53 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Chemical Engineering
    Project ID CNG0301
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    No of Pages 53 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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