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THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON VOTING BEHAVIOUR IN NASSARAWA WARD “ONE” IN CHIKUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:89
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Political Science Project Topics & Materials)
THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON VOTING BEHAVIOUR IN NASSARAWA WARD “ONE” IN CHIKUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE 
      ABSTRACT
The influence of the use of social media on people’s behavior has recently become more visible than before. Stakeholders in several democracies have since harnessed the utility of social media in their electoral process. This study examined the effect of social media on voting behaviour in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The study adopted voting behaviour theory as theoretical framework. This study also adopted both primary and secondary sources of data to explain the effect of social media on voting behaviour in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. It was discovered that most of the respondents in the study area used social media for election purpose and they received messages directly from elections political campaigns during election which influenced their attitudes in favorable ways. It also showed that social media have a significant potential to promote political participation and a potential to influence the turnout of voters as it is a major tool which enable citizens to talk about the issues of day to day life and also issue of national importance such as election.
                                                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study     
1.2    Statement of the Problem     
1.3    Research Questions     -    
1.4    Objectives of the Study     -
1.5     Research Preposition        
1.6    Significance of the Study     
1.7.1    Theoretical Framework -    
1.7.1   Voting Behaviour Theory    
1.8    Research Methodology    -    
1.9    Scope and limitation of the Study     
1.9. 1.    Definition of Terms    -    
1.9. 2    Organization of Chapter-    
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL
2.1 Introduction     -    
2.2 Prevalence Rate of Social Media Usage among Voters   
2. 3. Factors that Influence Voters’ Usage of Social Media during Election 
2.4 Effect of Social Media on Voters Behaviour     
2.5    Theoretical Framework     
2.5.1 Voting Behaviour Theory    
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1     Introduction          -
3.2    Historical Background of the Case Study-    
3.3    Scope and Geographical Location 
3.4    Occupation and Economy      
3.5 Culture and People of Nassarawa Ward One of Chikun Local Government
   Area of Kaduna State    
3.6 Population of the study    
3.7   Sampling Techniques and Sample Size 
3.8   Instrument of Data Collection    
3.9    Methods of Data Analysis     
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1    Introduction     
4.2    Socio-Demographic attributes of Respondents     
4.3    Prevalence rate of social media usage among voters    
4.4    Factors that influence voters’ usage of social media during election    -
4.5    Effect of social media on voters’ behaviour.    
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1    Summary of Findings    -
5.2    Conclusion     
5.3    Recommendations     
    References    -    
    Appendices     
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background of the Study
Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) define social media as “a group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content”. It includes web-based and mobile based technologies that are used to turn communication into interactive dialogue among individuals, organizations, and communities. Voting behavior is a form of political behavior exhibited by electorates which can be influenced by a lot of factors ranging from emotional, ethnicity, gender, race, culture and religion. Leading voters to make certain decisions and affecting the way a voter behaves and the decision they make as regards selection of a candidate of his choice.
Today’s social media has made the world a “global village”, with the quick transfer of information overriding the challenges of time and distance. As social media gains more popularity and scope, its impact on voters’ political and cultural perceptions cannot be underestimated as social media practically influences the way users interact, communicate and make decisions on social, cultural, and political issues in today’s world (Friedman,
2007). Around the world, rapidly expanding access to internet has redefined methods of political communication, leading to a significant shift towards the use of social media in the electoral process. Social media is revolutionizing the efficiency of election administration, coverage and reporting (Macnamara 2008).
Adelabu (2011) notes that the success of President Obama’s Presidential campaigns in 2008 and his eventual emergence as first black president of the United States was largely credited to his active use of facebook to mobilize millions of volunteers, and voters.
Since Barack Obama broke the world record in the history of social media use for political purpose during the 2008 US presidential elections, many nations and politicians across the globe have continued to embrace the platform to mobilize their citizens and
candidates towards active participation in the political process and this has changed the rules of political communication and since then electoral campaigns have been more about social networking (Okoro and Kenneth, 2013).
Social media was first used in a remarkable way in the 2011 elections (Policy and Legal Advocacy Centre, 2012), especially by President Goodluck Jonathan, who used his Facebook account to garner country wide support. Ever since, stakeholders use of social media platforms for election-related activity has risen (Asuni & Farris, 2011). As evidenced by the recent March 28th Presidential elections in Nigeria, political parties took to social media platforms to campaign and mobilize all class of internet users to vote for them. This brought about a variety of interesting news and drama online providing opportunity for users to read, respond, interact, argue and trash out issues online.
Nearly every political party in Nigeria used social media to campaign and advance its plans, message and manifestoes to supporters in all the states of the federation, and even fundraising. Social media were used to let voters know how each party or particular candidate felt about important national issues ranging from security to power. Hence social media became powerful enough to influence voter decisions and choices as many voters who had fixed their minds and conscience on voting a particular party or candidate began to change their minds based on certain information or idea they got online about the party or candidate. Information gotten by a particular voter was also not static, as the same voter would use several internet tools and buttons to broadcast same message to other voters like him through social media in order to influence them. Hence this study examines the effect of social media on voting behaviour in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The influence of the use of social networking sites on people’s behavior has recently become more visible than before (Ali 2011, Agarwal, Lim & Wigand, 2012). This has, in turn, impacted participation of citizens in public affairs; in relation to plurality of voices,
advocacy, activism and electoral activities, thus deepening the democratic process.
Stakeholders in several democracies have since harnessed the utility of social media in their electoral process, and Nigeria, despite structural challenges, is not exempted (Diamond, 2010).
The ubiquitous access of social media no doubt, has democratizing effects as they offer citizens opportunities for more fully engagement in the political process (Adibe & Odoemelam, 2010; Oyesomi & Okorie, 2013). Increasing use of social media for political communication has led to declining newspaper readership and television viewership in many countries. Under this circumstance, the social media may likely continue to dominate political communication, and to serve as a tool for gathering and disseminating political messages (Australian Media and Communication Authority 2007). Social media can also be used by various parties to propagate false news and propaganda about the opposition in order to disfavor such party or candidate in the eyes of the electorates while exonerating theirs. This has a huge influence on voter behavior as many voters make decisions based on such news they read online (Saqib, 2012).
The private and public lives of society‘s most influential figures including politicians have been made public online. Many politicians have been found in compromising positions with their words or phrase taken out of context and magnified to huge proportions by opposition parties in order to discredit them. The belief is that it will go a long way in influencing voter‘s behavior and turning such voter against the candidate since the voter can now judgmentally make decisions about the candidate based on what he said, did or other information about him or her. Even though, such information are refuted sometimes by the concerned party or individual, it remains valid in the minds of many voters who may have made up their mind already or simply are not aware of the true situation. It is against this backdrop that the study examines the effect of social media on voting behaviour in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.3 Research Questions
In view of the foregoing problem, this research intends to address the following questions: 
1. What is the prevalence rate of social media usage among voters during election in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
2. What are the factors that influence voters’ usage of social media during election in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
3. What are the effects of social media on voters’ behaviour in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
1.4 The Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study is to examine the effect of social media on voting behaviour in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. In order to achieve the broad objective, the specific research objectives are as follows:
1. To determine the prevalence rate of social media usage among voters during election in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
2. To examines the factors that influence voters’ usage of social media during election in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
3. To examine the effect of social media on voters behaviour in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.5 Research Preposition
The following are the basic assumptions of the researcher on the research study;
1. There was widespread voluntarily usage of social media during elections by the voters of Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
2. Voters participate in the use of social media during elections mostly because of it low cost, and broad scope and it gives them access to the production and the consumption of news.
3. The involvement of voters in the use of social media during election leads to political affiliations, knowledge of candidates and their party manifestoes and provides a platform through which voters across cultural divides can relate and interact with
themselves on issues about these candidates
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will help beam the searchlight on the effect of social media on voting behaviour as well as the decisions they make and elections as a whole based on the information available to voters on the internet. It will also enlighten relevant stakeholders such as political parties, candidates, and even the civil society on how social media can bring about awareness and campaign opportunities if properly utilized. This research study will help stakeholders understand that maintaining a good and healthy profile online with a cordial relationship between the party and voters can positively influence voter’s behaviour. Lastly, this research work will add to the body of knowledge on the already existing scholarly materials on the effect of social media on voter behaviour.
1.7 Theoretical Framework
1.7.1 Voting Behaviour Theory
Theories of political behaviour, as an aspect of political science, attempts to quantify and explain the influences that defines a person's political views, ideology, and levels of political participation. Karl Deutsch and Theodor Adorno (1967) are theorists who have had an influence on this field. The theories of political behaviour can further be broken down into long term influence on political orientation, short term influence political orientation, and influence of social groups on political outcome.
The long-term influences on political orientation have three main sources of influence that shape political orientation which creates long-term effects. Generally, the primary influence originates from family. Secondly, teachers and other educational authority figures have a significant impact on political orientation. Thirdly, peers also affect political orientation.
On the short-term influences on political orientation, short-term factors also affect voting behavior; the social media and the impact of individual election issues are among these factors. These factors differ from the long-term factors as they are often short-lived.
However, they can be just as crucial in modifying political orientation. 
Thirdly, the influence of social groups on political outcomes. Recently, some political scientists have been interested in many studies which aimed to analyze the relation between the behavior of social groups and the political outcomes. Some of the social groups included in their studies have been age demographics, gender, and ethnic groups.
1.8 Research Methodology
Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State has a total population of 173,123 people (NPC, 2006). The research method of this study would be characterized by primary sources of data collection, secondary sources of data collection. The primary source of data will include questionnaires and in-depth interviews among others while the secondary sources of data will include textbooks, newspapers, magazines, journals and seminar papers. The internet will also of immense help where articles, virtual libraries and journals will be consulted. The researcher will use both quantitative and qualitative method of data collection. For quantitative data the study will use survey research design. Surveys allow for the study of people‘s opinion on a given issue of public interest. A structured questionnaire will be used to elicit information from the target respondents who are all voters from Nassarawa Ward One in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The survey research design will be adopted because of the population characteristics and a representative nature of the sample of the population for the study. On the aspect of qualitative data, in-depth interview guide will be constructed and used to collect data.
Simple random sampling technique will be used to select the household in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” where the study will be carried out and purposive sampling technique will also be used to select respondents who voted in elections. The data received from the questionnaire will be presented using appropriate analytical tools. Descriptive statistics which include the use of percentages and frequency distribution will be used in data analysis. Qualitative data collected through the in-depth interview guide would be transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis and this will be used to compliment the quantitative data
collected from the field.
1.9 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The scope of this research study would cover voting behaviour of the people of Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. However, the study will be limited to the impact of social media on the voting behaviour in Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Also the study will provide information on the prevalence rate of social media usage, factors that influence voters’ usage of social media during election and the effect of social media on voting behaviour in Kaduna. Since this study is a case study and the researcher cannot cover the whole length and breadth of the country and Kaduna State in carrying out this study. The confinement of this study is due to vastness, limited time and economic constraints. The study area is of particular interest due to the fact that Nassarawa Ward “ONE” in Chikun Local Government Area has large concentration of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. The research is also limited to materials on the effect of social media on voting behaviour.
1.9.1 Definition of Key Concepts
Effect: Refers to a change which is as a result or consequences of an action or other cause. Social Media: Are computer mediated tools that allow people to create, share or exchange information, ideas and pictures/videos in virtual communities and online networks.
Voter Behaviour: Voting behavior is a form of political behavior exhibited by electorates which can be influenced by a lot of factors ranging from emotional, ethnicity, gender, race, culture and religion. Leading voters to make certain decisions and affecting the way a voter behaves and the decision they make as regards selection of a candidate of his choice.
1.9.2 Organization of Chapter
Chapter One deals with the background of the study which is characterized by introduction, statement of the problem, research questions, objectives of the study, propositions, significance of the study, methodology of the study, the scope and limitation of study and the definition of key concepts. Chapter two deals with review of relevant literature and
theoretical framework. However, chapter three focuses on the historical background of the case study; Chapter four would deal with data presentation, analysis and discussion of findings. Lastly, chapter five will contain summary, conclusion and recommendations.

THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON VOTING BEHAVIOUR IN NASSARAWA WARD “ONE” IN CHIKUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE

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Type Project
Department Political Science
Project ID POL0435
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 89 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Political Science
    Project ID POL0435
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 89 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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