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DETERMINANTS OF PREMARITAL SEX AMONG STUDENTS OF KADUNA STATE UNIVERSITY.

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:71
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Sociology Project Topics & Materials)
Abstract

Pre-marital sex is an illegal act against the norms of many societies. The era of no sex until marriage seems to be fast disappearing, the maxim then seems to be before marriage boys and girls will be virgin. Premarital sexual behaviours have become a subject of attention among scholars and researchers in recent decades. It is an important topic especially in today’s world and a serious moral issue confronting the youth. Today, the youth are exposed to different environments and holds diverse perspective on premarital sexual relationships. Whether to engage in premarital sex is a question of critical importance. In view of this background, this study analyzes the determinants of premarital sex among students of Kaduna State University. To address the problem of study, three research questions were raised. The researcher adopted a survey research design. A total of two hundred (200) respondents comprised the target of the study. Questionnaire and was the instrument used for data collection. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), frequency tables and percentages (%) were employed in the data analysis. It was discovered that most of the respondents in the study area obtain most of their information about premarital sex from books, journals, magazines and newspaper. Premarital sex is common in the study area among some students in the school and most of them had their first premarital sexual intercourse at the age 17-19 years. Results from the study reveal that most of the students’ first premarital sexual partners were their friends. Peer group, parental care and parental neglect, exposure to mass media, internet influence and online pornography; prove of love to boy/girl friend, poor economic deprivation and drugs and alcohol abuse are determinants of premarital sex among students. Premarital sex should be considered as immoral and having multiple sex partners and socially premarital sexes has a way of making the young men arrogant, rude and often disrespectful to adults. It was recommended that sex education should be part of school curriculum in order to educate students about pre marital sex to address all aspects of sexuality and reproductive health, including contraception and the results of unsafe sex.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    1
1.2    Statement of the Problem     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    3
1.3    Research Questions     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    5
1.4    Objectives of the Study     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    5
1.5    Significance of the Study     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    6
1.6    Scope and Limitations of the Study     -    -    -    -    -    -    6
1.7    Definition of Key Terms    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL
2.1    Introduction     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    8
2.2    Prevalence of Premarital Sex among Students -    -    -    -    -    8
2.3    Determinants of Premarital Sex among Students    -    -    -    -    12
2.4    Attitude of Students towards Premarital Sex-    -    -    -    -    -    23
2.5    Theoretical Framework     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    28
2.5.1 Diffusion Theory    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    28
2.5.2 The Deviance Perspective Theory    -    -    -    -    -    -    30
2.5.3 Differential Association Theory    -    -    -    -    -    -    30
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1    Location of the Study     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    32
3.2    Population of Study    -        -    -    -    -    -    -    32
3.3    Sampling Technique and Sampling Size        -    -    -    -    33
3.4    Methods of Data Collection     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    35
3.5    Methods of Data Analysis     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    35
3.6    Problems Encountered in the Field     -    -    -    -    -    -    35
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1    Introduction     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    36
4.2    Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents     -    -    -    -    36
4.3    Prevalence of premarital sex among students-    -    -    -    -    39
4.4    Determinants of premarital sex among students        -    -    -    42
4.5    Opinion of Respondents on premarital sex    -    -    -    -    -    44
4.6    Discussion of Major findings     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    47
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1    Summary of Findings    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    58
5.2    Conclusion     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    59
5.3    Recommendations     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    60
    References    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    62
    Appendices     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    80
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background to the study
Premarital sex is a sexual intercourse engaged in by persons who are not married to each other. It is generally used in reference to individuals who are presumed not yet of marriage age, or between adults who may likely marry each other eventually, but who are engaging in sexual activity before marriage (Akinleye and onifade, 2010). Pre-marital sex is an illegal act against the norms of many societies (Casper, 2009). The era of no sex until marriage seems to be fast disappearing, the maxim then seems to be before marriage boys and girls will be virgin (Williams and Snell, 1989). Premarital sexual behaviours have become a subject of attention among scholars and researchers in recent decades. Martin, Martin, and Martin (2001) reported that the number of young adults engaging in premarital sexual behaviours has increased 63% in the last 20 years. Also, the World Health Organizations (2001) submitted that premarital sexual activities among young adults are high and increasing in Africa in which Nigeria is one of them. Premarital sexual behaviours are more rampant among undergraduates. This is because most of these students are young (15-24 years). In school, they enjoy more freedom, independence, and are less monitored by either their parents or guardians (Alo & Akinde, 2010). Premarital sexual intercourse could be associated with teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and AIDS, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young especially, the undergraduates (Koeing, 2000; Odewole, 2000; Omoteso, 2006; Adeoye, Ola & Aliu, 2012; Ugoji, 2008). Unlike before, when the culture of premarital sex used to be a taboo in Nigeria (Alo, 2008), present day youths have abandoned this valued tradition for the inglorious culture of premarital sex (Adeoye et al., 2012). The Nigerian culture highly frowns at premarital sex, especially among females (Alo, 2008). Because females usually are more prone to negative consequences of premarital sex such as gynecological problems, unwanted pregnancies as well as STIs than the males; females are, therefore, expected to keep their virginity until they get married. Alo (2008) submitted that pre marital cohabitation has become a common phenomenon among the Nigerian University undergraduates. To him, cohabitation among individuals of opposite sex is a predisposing factor to the initiation of sexual activities. Researchers have observed that there is a high prevalence rate of premarital sexual practices among the students in contemporary society, which leads to high incidence of teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. For instance in Nepal one third of the students (39%) engage in pre-marital sex (Ramesh 2008). Ayodele et al (2012) carried out a study to determine the prevalence of this phenomenon among adolescence in tertiary institution. The conclusion of the study indicates that premarital sex is highly normative behaviour among university students. A significant (85.6%) number of the respondents see nothing wrong with sex before marriage. The study also identifies cohabitation as one of the primary influence on premarital sex among students in tertiary institution. Cohabitation of opposite sex is a predisposing factor to the initiation of sexual activities. Premarital sex is not confined to teens alone, a good number of people who are not married, are also vulnerable to premarital sex. This is evidenced by the large number of unintended/unwanted pregnancies many of which get terminated in back street clinics (Alo, 2008). 
Furthermore, a study conducted by Alo and Akinde (2010) on premarital sex revealed that 14.2% of young female adults engaged in this act before age 14 while 84% admitted that they had sex before their 20th birthday. Adeoye et al.’s (2012) study on premarital sexual behaviours among undergraduates in a Nigerian university found that age categories of 14-15 years and 19-25 years experienced premarital sexual behaviours at the same level and as such, age did not have any significant influence on youth sexual behaviours. In modern Nigeria, there is little or no parental control on dating behavior of their children, particularly those in institutions of learning. Ibrahim (2004) argued that students are confronted with peer pressure and some fall into promiscuous behavior without even at first, recognizing just how far they have fallen. Sex in campus is reduced to an easy source of pleasure. lkpe (2003) concludes that in University of Lagos, students negotiate sex for money. Students engage in pre-marital sex because they need money and material goods while at school and not all of them are favorably disposed to acquire it legitimately. In Tanzania Heidi, et al (2004) argues that while some students rape girls, others use money power to engage in sex. The NADI-IS (2005) explains that students between the ages of 15-29 years engage in sex for material goods in Nigeria. Fikadu and Fikadu (2000) opined that premarital sex is one of the reproductive health problems witnessed among youth. Studies have also revealed that the prevalence of premarital sex among school youth is higher in Oromia (31.3%) than nationally (19%) (HAPCO, 2000). The phenomenon of premarital sex was not allowed to breed in the early years. But with students living independently in the hostels, beyond parental watchful eyes and with access to products of modern technology, there is an ample opportunity for various sexual experimentation among students (Isiugo-Abanihe & Oyediran 2004). There is an increasing awareness and fight to combat the menace of STD, H.I.V, teenage pregnancies and abortions directed at the unmarried young students, mass media campaigns for increased contraceptive use among university students appears to be an acknowledge of their involvement in premarital sex. Hence this study examines the determinants of premarital sex among students of Kaduna State University.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Premarital sexual relationship is an important topic especially in today’s world. Premarital sex is serious moral issue confronting the youth. Today, the youth are exposed to different environments and holds diverse perspective on premarital sexual relationships. Whether to engage in premarital sex is a question of critical importance. For better or worse, the effects of this decision often last a lifetime (Lucas, 2000 and Ramesh, 2008). Culturally, sex is supposed to be preserved till marriage, but the prevalence of premarital sex in this contemporary time with its accompanying consequences cannot be ignored (Adebaoyejo & Onyeonoru, 2005). Evidence suggests that adolescents are engaging in premarital sex at younger age than ever before (Sychareun, 2006). The Nigeria Federal Health Management Board, (2009) engages in series of campaigns on all our social media to create public awareness on the danger and circulation of sexually transmitted diseases and early sexual activity usually exposes youths to risks of pregnancy and many diseases. 
More than 13 million youths, representing 7% of the population aged 15–24, are pursuing University education in Nigeria (Ayodele et al, 2009). For most of these youths, university represents a shift towards greater independence from home, and school settings offers an opportunity to form new friendships, as well as new subculture with divergent norms and values. While for others, school represents an opportunity to experience romantic and/or sexual relationships and experiment new ideas. Throughout the world, the trend towards an increasing number of young people is reported having sex before marriage. The University of Maiduguri Security Division report of 2000- 2001 reveals the prevalence of pre-marital sex among students as a serious social problem in the campus and these practices constitute a serious health hazard. The society expects the university community to enforce the values of the larger society, where children are trained and encouraged to stay away from any sexual activities or behaviors that will attract sexual advances. The need to remain virgin until marriage is highly valued, but while in the university students who have set of values passed down to them, to face other sub-cultural and social values. 
Students in the university are relatively detached from family network and have the opportunity to build their own subcultures in their own ways. As Romeo (2004) observed; each year, young women leave the security of their familiar surroundings and attend college and universities in distant cities and locations. These women are embarking on a journey, filled with hopes for joy and happiness, as they seek an academic education. Many of them are also seeking to find the “special” someone with whom they will share their future lives. The campus environment, therefore, provides for academic stimulation, as well as a variety of activities and opportunities for socialization. Thus, they are vulnerable to all forms of sexual practices and behaviors (Romeo, 2004).  The university environment provides social opportunities through both clubs and associations for students to socialize. These seem to encourage the emerging risky sexual behavior among students in higher institutions of learning. The university environment allows freer sexual activities and this is against moral values of the community. It is for this perhaps that the University is witnessing the prevalence of pre-marital sex, homosexuals, rape, STls and incidences of abortion in the campus. While several studies in Nigeria have examined the prevalence of premarital sex among students and the effect of such practices, very little study has investigated the determinants of premarital sex among students. More so, most of these studies have been concentrated on other schools outside Kaduna State University. This study was therefore conceived to fill this gap on knowledge. It is against this backdrop that this study examines the determinants of premarital sex among students of Kaduna State University.
  1.3 Research Questions   
               In view of the foregoing problem, this research intends to address the following questions: 
1. What is the prevalence of premarital sex among students of Kaduna State University?
2. What are the determinants of premarital sex among students of Kaduna State University? 
3. What is the attitude of Kaduna State University towards premarital sex?
1.4 The Objective of the Study The general objective of the study is to examine the determinants of premarital sex among students of Kaduna State University. In order to achieve the broad objective, the specific research objectives are as follows;
1. To identify the prevalence of premarital sex among students of Kaduna State University.
2. To examine the determinants of premarital sex among students of Kaduna State University. 
3. To determine the attitude of Kaduna State University students towards premarital sex.
1.5 Significance of the Study               
This study will examine the determinants of premarital sex among students of Kaduna State University; knowledge on this study will help in the design of appropriate enlightenment campaigns which will help discourage premarital sex among students. It would also provide the reasons why students engage themselves more in pre marital sex. After the establishment of the causes and characteristics of pre-marital sex, various solutions and measures on how to prevent the vices among students shall be provided. This provision will be of great value to the entire community. It will be of importance to governments, schools, the health sector and non-governmental organizations (N.G.O) and also policy makers in taking steps to curb the prevalence of premarital sex. The findings will provide additional information to the already existing records about pre-marital sex that can be of much importance to the future scholars and those interested in researching on issues related to pre-marital sex. It will provide additional information to the already existing information about pre-marital sex.
1.6 Scope of the Study   
The research shall be carried out within the confines of the main campus of Kaduna State University. The research primarily focuses on students of Kaduna State University. Also, the research is concerned only with issues that have to do with the determinants of premarital sex among students of Kaduna State University. 
1.7 Definition of Key Terms    
For the purpose of this study or research the following operational definitions were used:
Determinants: 
Premarital sex: Refers to sexual relationship engaged in by persons who are unmarried 



DETERMINANTS OF PREMARITAL SEX AMONG STUDENTS OF KADUNA STATE UNIVERSITY.

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Details

Type Project
Department Sociology
Project ID SOC0335
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 71 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Sociology
    Project ID SOC0335
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 71 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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