EFFECT OF NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF HISTORY IN NIGERIAN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study focused on the problem militating against teaching and learning of history as a subject. The role of history to nation building is indispensable to the society. History as a discipline occupies a prominent pace in the life of man. It is related with other subject like government social studies. History is the process of reconstructing the past with the aim of correcting the present so as to have a better future. Its inquiry into the past makes history relevant, hence the need for its inclusion in the curriculum and it is therefore a subject to be studied at all level of education especially in secondary school. It is therefore, essential and useful to carry out this research which is intended to help the students and teachers of history to find out the major problems facing history as a subject in Nigerian secondary schools as a result of influence of national policy on education. Among the problems identified are cases of lack of inadequate qualified teachers in which the study reveals that 28% of the teachers are qualified while 72% of the teachers are of related subjects but can also teach the subject, 66% of the respondent say that poor implementation of the policy on education led to the dying of history as a subject in secondary schools. Furthermore, the study is interested in suggesting lasting solution to the problems identified by using Ife-Central local government as a case study.. This research finally brings the researcher to make some suggestion through which the problem can be solved. It is therefore hoped that this write-up will provide the teachers, school management, communities and the government necessary knowledge of the core problems faced in teaching and learning of history as a subject. Undoubtedly, by using the recommendation in this write-up, they would be able to solve their problems posed on teaching and learning of history as a subject by national policy on education.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.0 Background to the study
1.1 Statement of the problem
1.3 Research question
1.4 Purpose of the study
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Operational terms
2.1 Concept of history
2.2 Objectives of teaching history in secondary school
2.3 Ways of developing students interest in history
2.4 National policy on education and their shortcomings.
2.5 Effect of national policy on education on teaching and learning of history.
3.0 Research design and procedure
3.1 Research design
3.2 Subject of the study and Sampling procedure
3.3 Research instrument
3.4 Validity of questionnaires
3.5 Research procedure
3.6 Administration of questionnaire
3.7 Collection of data
3.8 Procedure of data analysis
4.0 Data analysis
4.2 The student of history
4.3 The teachers of history
4.4 Discussion of findings
5.0Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
1.1BACKGROUD TO THE STUDY
Education is a social service provided worldwide with multiple Objectives in mind. The objectives vary from the acquisition of the skills required for a more rapid growth of the economy and the basic knowledge for the individual to function effectively in the society.
Etymologically, education is derived from two Latin words namely “educare” and “educere” respectively. The word educare is interpreted to mean; to train, to form or mould. Education here seems to be sociologically based. In other words, educare implies the society train, form or mould the individual to achieve the societal needs and aspiration. This perspective of education has little to consider on the natural potentialities of the individual.
On the contrary, the word “educere” is interpreted to mean; to build, to lead or to develop. This perspective of the concept is mostly favored by the humanist, who insists that the function of education is to develop the child to enable him function in the society according to his abilities, interest and needs. This perspective of the concept of education is child centered, whereas the former is society centered or subject matter centered.
From the ongoing discussion, therefore, education according to (Amaele 2003) could be understood to mean the total development of the individual child through acceptable methods and techniques according to his abilities and interest, as well as the needs of the society, to take his rightful place and contribute adequately to the advancement of his society.
The colonial education which was inherited by Nigeria was outside for been to theoretical to be able to make meaningful impact on the lives of Nigerians(Akinlua2007).subject taught in secondary schools reflected to the taste of the colonial educational officials, hence school curricula was built around the existing colonial values. Students were supposed to mimic their teachers in subject like English language which involved demonstration of competency. The same problem which informed dependency on the past colonial educational relics seems to have continued till date. (woolman2001) was forced to comment on the issue of this sort in his remark about African education. According to him“ African school system today still follow the rigid structure of time periods and grade level progression found in the western education”. Where there is little change in the curriculum, it is either one subject is substituted for the other or dropped out rightly. This is the case with the study of history which has almost lost its place to social studies in school curriculum.
The national policy on education in Nigeria advocates the teaching of social studies and civic education. The policy makes provision for six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four years of university education (6-3-3-4). In the first tier of this programme , student learn social studies while in the senior secondary school, the second tier of this programme witness a scenario where by student may choose between history and government as one of their art subject while civic education is been made as a core subject. Government now promotes the learning of social studies, a junior class subject above the study of history with the notion that the study of social studies is needed for the understanding of Nigerian cultures. Perhaps, the reason for this is that cultural diversities is in Nigeria will best be understood by Nigerians when they learn this diversities in social studies. Ironically, Nigeria is currently facing the problem of ethno-religious crisis, political instability, economic strangulation, and environmental degradation and many others. Many of these problems, which may be connected to past actions of average Nigerians, arise because Nigerian leaders and policy makers do not see how the past can help to make the present and shape the future (Wolman 2001).
The trend of post-colonial education was equally observed I the nature of the colonial system where emphasis was placed o the production of elite group that shunned vocational education that exist within their immediate communities. School certificate holders were said to constitute 59 percent of the unemployment people in Nigeria. It was however pointed out by Lugard that the main purpose western education was to produce clerks and interpreters and administrative machinery of the imperial overlords. To Akinlua 2007:95 this type of education was not “founded on realistic philosophical principle”. While Marinho 2009 had the feeling that through the frame of reference for curricular content was localized. Other issue as mode of teaching and learning was based on British system.
History is not a mere story telling as believed by a lay man. It is not a mere fabrication. History is an account of what actually happened in the past which has a link what is happening at present and can help in planning or projecting for the future. In other words, history is about yesterday today and tomorrow.
Historical records or accounts are presented in sequential, coherent, consistent and systematic order. Logical presentation is an important ingredient of history. Bias and prejudice are not allowed or encouraged. History gives account of real names of people, places time and incidents that actually took place at the recorded time. History therefore is the true picture of important person, places, events of the past for the present and the future generation (Amaele 2003).
There are so many sources of gathering information of major characters, places, and event of the past. These include primary and secondary sources. Primary sourced refers to various information about real names of people, places and events gathered by the historian from somebody who is an eye-witness of the incident. If the historian gathers the information himself at the time of happening it is also a primary source. It can be further sub-divided into oral and written. When a historian consults a book written by somebody or group of people who were or were eye witness to the incident, he is referring to a secondary source of information. Secondary sources are also referring to oral information given by somebody who is not an eye witness or not privileged to have first-hand information of the event.
It is pertinent at this juncture, looking at the national policy on education and history as a subject to look into the challenges posed on student and teachers of history as a result of the implementation of various policies. This study is therefore set to look into some of the deficiencies of national policy and its impact on teaching and learning of history as a subject at secondary level in Ife – Central local government of Osun state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study is designed to find out the challenges posed on teaching and learning of history as a subject at secondary school level with the help of deficiencies in various system of education e.g. 6-3-3-4 and 9-3-4 system of education in Nigeria with a case study of Ife – central local government of Osun state with a view of offering useful point of advice towards alleviating them.
The problems that are noticeable could be traced to the fact that student attitude and orientation towards the learning of history as a subject is not encouraging. This could therefore be traced to the following factors over the year; formulation of the policy on education by no-professional, implementation of policy on education by non-professional in education, poor funding towards implementation of policy on education, effect of teaching methods of teaching history, instability of education system e.g. movement fro 6-3-3-4 system of education to 9-3-4 system ands it implication on teaching and learning of history, government attitude towards history teachers: remuneration, motivation, and teachers training.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
Based on the statement of the problem the following research questions are formulated to assist the researcher.
a) To what extent are qualified teachers available in secondary schools for teaching of history?
b) Why do student show derogatory attitude to history as a subject?
c) What implication can re-introduction of 9-3-4 system of education have on teaching and learning of history?
d) To what extent does poor implementation of policy on education have effect on teaching and learning of history?
e) What implication does method of teaching and learning of history have on teaching and learning of history as a subject?
f) How does poor funding of the policy on education affect the teaching and learning of history as a subject?
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
In specific terms the study is set out to; identify the major challenges militating against teaching and learning of history as a subject, showcase the ways by which national policy on education has contributed to the decline of history as a subject, determine the problems encountered during teaching and learning of history as a subject in secondary school.
1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is important to identify the problems involved in the teaching and learning of history so as to have improvement. A study of this nature would draw the attention of the government, parents, and school administrator to the unique place of history in the society, its contribution to the development of the school curriculum, problems militating against effecting teaching and learning of the subject and provide possible remedies.
1.6SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study will be limited to secondary schools in ife-central local government of Osun state based on time factor and few schools offering history as a subject at secondary school level. The study will cover five (5) selected schools in Ife- central local government of Osun state which is stated bellow;
I. Moremi High School
II. Ife girls High School
III. Seventh day Grammar School
IV. St David Grammar School
V. Oduduwa College
1.7LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study will be limited to selected secondary school in Ife - central local government of Osun state. This limitation is due to time factor and few portion of secondary schools in Osun state offering history as a subject at secondary school level.
1.8OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONAL TERMS
EDUCATION: this refers to acquisition of knowledge, skills, desirable work, attitude and competencies applicable to efficient use of tools and equipment in production of goods and services.
TEACHING: this is an interaction, conscious or deliberate action induced to imbibe skills, attitude, values, and competence into the learner
LEARNING: this is relative permanent change in behavior of an individual as a result of acquired knowledge or experience which makes him fit and better to deal with situational problems.
NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION: this is the policy approved by the government to foster the development of education.
HISTORY: a reaction of the true picture of important persons, places, events of the past for the present and future.