+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
info@grossarchive.com

FORMULATION AND PRODUCTION OF LEVERA SOAP

  • Type:Project
  • Pages:89
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Chemical Engineering Project Topics & Materials)

ABSTRACT
The production of the soap was carried out using all the necessary equipments like the reactor, mould, stirrer, hygrometer guage etc. and all the required reagents for soap production in correct proportion.
In the production, palm kernel oil (P.K.O) was used instead of tallow or grease.  This was because soap produced from grease or tallow tends to dissolve slowly at room temperature, whereas, soap of palm kernel oil product gives a quicker lather which is relatively suitable.
Different formulation were developed, but the most appropriate was the ratio 2:1 of P.K.O to caustic soda solution.  This ratio gave a very quality soap.  The other formulation are 3:1 and 1:1 of good quality and physically, they were observed to be brittle.
The test and analysis carried out on the P.K.O and the soap produced proved that the saponification value of the P.K.O was 248.24; refractive index was 1.451, free fatty value of 1.58; acid value of 4.43; moisture content of 26.78%; free alkali of 0.214%, alcohol insoluble matter of 1.43% and PH value of 9.98 at a temperature reading 2980c.  The soap was moderately soft and very soluble in water.
The quality of soap produced conformed to all the requirements for toilet soap from Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON).  It was found out that the soap has no inferiors effect on the skin; does not contain any visible foreign matter which means that the soap was properly mixed, does not encourage microbial growth and lathers effectively.
It was also found that the cost of producing the herbal/medicated or antiseptic soap was N63.00k compared to that sold in the market for N100.00k per tablet.  Thus, the production based on the research work was profitable and more economical.
 

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Soap is defined as the sodium salt of fatty acid.  It is a saponification products of fat and oil.
The washing industry, usually known as the soap industry, has root over 2000 years in the past, a soap factory being found in the Pompeii excavation.  However, among the many chemical process industries, none has experience such a fundamental change in chemical raw materials as have the washing industries.  It has been generally accepted that the per capital use of toilet soap is a reliable guide to the standard of living for any country. 
Moreover, the process of soap making has progressed from batch-wise saponification process to continous saponification process, which was first installed in 1937 by procter and gamble.
In otherwords, soap is the earliest detergent known to man and apparently was first made by the Roman from animal’s fats and wood ashes (which contains the alkali potassium carbonate) about 2500 years ago.  In colonial America and until the 1940s, most soap was manufactured by an alkaline hydrolysis reaction called saponification.

FORMULATION AND PRODUCTION OF LEVERA SOAP

Share This

Details

Type Project
Department Chemical Engineering
Project ID CNG0293
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
No of Pages 89 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Chemical Engineering
    Project ID CNG0293
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    No of Pages 89 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    ABSTRACT Stabilized adhesive was developed and produced. The development was made by the production of samples of the adhesive with varied quantities of the active ingredients and the additives. From the various formulations made, it was observed that formulations A is the best for... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The sole aim of this research work is comparison and formulation of industrial Bar Soap and detergent. The major expert of this project deals with quality control processes in the production of a high quality bar soap and detergent. In synthetic detergent which was developed... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The construction of soap cutting table, mould and cutters became inevitable as it’s importance in our industries and society could not be over emphasized. When one considers the money at hand, he decides whether to start from the primary production level or secondary... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The construction of soap cutting table, mould and cutters became inevitable as it’s importance in our industries and society could not be over emphasized. When one considers the money at hand, he decides whether to start from the primary production level or secondary... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT  The Production of Bar Soap is aimed at producing a cleansing agent which is capable of removing stains or dirt in man and his environment so as to reduce the population size of pathogenic micro-organisms. Soaps are salts of fatty acids. It is obtained by treating oils and fats with a strong alkaline solution. This... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This research work was arrived as the formulation and production of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) from the fermentation of palm wine. A fresh palm wine was ated which was obtained from Emene in Enugu State. The characteristics that was tested before and after fermentation were; specific gravity, refractive index and PH value of the fermentated... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This research work was arrived as the formulation and production of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) from the fermentation of palm wine. A fresh palm wine was ated which was obtained  from Emene in Enugu State.  The characteristics that was tested before and after fermentation were; specific gravity, refractive index and PH value of the... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The major aim of this project research work is to produce emulsion paint from locally sourced pigment & extenders. The materials used for the production was of local source. The major raw materials used for the production of the emulsion paint: water, titanium iv oxide, calcium carbonate, kaoline, calgon, natrosol, biocide P.V.A,... Continue Reading
    THE USE OF LOCAL PIGMENTS AND EXTENDERS FOR FORMULATION & PRODUCTION OF EMULSION PAINT ABSTRACT The major aim of this project research work is to produce emulsion paint from locally sourced pigment & extenders. The materials used for the production was of local source. The major raw materials used for the production of the emulsion paint:... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The major aim of this project research work is to produce emulsion paint from locally sourced pigment & extenders. The materials used for the production was of local source. The major raw materials used for the production of the emulsion paint: water, titanium iv oxide, calcium carbonate, kaoline, calgon, natrosol, biocide P.V.A,... Continue Reading