This is a prospective study carried out in Isuochi among primary school teachers to know the compliance of the teachers on Breast cancer screening technique or method as it concern the mammography examination and Self Breast Examination (SBE). The research was done in nine communities in Isuochi, Abia state. The research was carried out with convenient sampling to reduce stress and cost to the researcher. The research lasted for a period for four months March – July 2012. From the results obtained during the research study, it is obvious that a good number of primary school teachers in Isuochi do not comply and go for a recommendable breast cancer screening technique due to distance and lack of basic information, even among the teachers who are assumed to be most learned in the community as the case may be.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents ----vii
1.1 Background of the Study----1
1.2 Statement of Problem.----4
1.3 Purpose of Study.----5
1.4 Significance of the Study.----5
1.5 Scope of the Study.----6
2.2 Pathology of Breast Cancer----9
2.3 Risk Factors for Development of Breast Cancer-10
2.4 Facts about Breast Cancer----12
2.5 Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors---13
2.8 Expectations (Prognosis)----18
3.1 Research Design and Methodology---21
3.2 Target Population and Respondents---21
3.3 Source of Data.----21
3.4 Study Area and Duration----22
3.5 Method of Data Presentation Analysis---22
3.6 Subject Selection Criteria.----22
3.7 Samplying Methods----23
3.8 Sample Size----24
3.9 Geographic Area ----24
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis----25
DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION.
5.2 Recommendation ----33
5.3 Conclusion ----34
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and leading cause of death among women worldwide 1. In Abia state, a lot of death have been recorded on breast cancer. In 2000 ,breast cancer resulted in an estimated 189,000 death in developed countries and 184,000 death in developing countries ,accounting for 16% and 12% respectively of all cancer death in women . While the age standardized incidence of breast cancer is generally lower in developing countries 1
Over the past years, the risk of breast cancer in developed countries has increase by one to three percent annually3 .Although the cause and natural history of breast cancer remain unknown , epidemiological research has uncovered genetic, biological, environmental and lifestyle risk factors for the disease 3 . Most of these researches have been conducted in Nigeria and in developed countries, but studies conducted in other countries generally confirm these patterns.
Age is the single most important risk factor for breast cancer. Compared with women in their twenties, they are 10 times as likely to develop breast cancer in their thirties ,40 times as likely in their forties, 60 times as likely in their fifties, and 90 times as likely after age 60 3. Breast cancer in Nigeria is one of the leading cause of death in women aged 30years and above 4.
Hormones, especially estrogens, play a crucial role in the development and growth of breast cancer, and they may be the common factor behind the many reproductive variables associated with breast cancer 4. In theory, the more years a woman is exposed to hormones during her lifetime, the greater her risk of breast cancer, for example, women are two times more likely to get breast cancer if they reach menopause after the age of 54, and three times more likely if they have their first child after the age 40 5 .Similarly, breast cancer risks fall with each year of delay in onset of menstruation. Studies also suggest that extended breastfeeding for a lifetime total of six years or more reduces the risk of breast cancer; at least among premenopausal women 8 .Some case-control studies have raised concern that the abrupt hormonal changes accompanying induced abortions might increase the risk of breast cancer later in life. However, these studies suffer from a serious bias: because abortion is so controversial, healthy women in control groups are far less likely to share information about it than women with cancer. Larger, more rigorous cohort studies that lack this bias have found no link between induced abortion and breast cancer risk. Breast cancer is more easily and effectively treated in its early stages. Survival rates reduce when women present with advanced cases, regardless of the setting. Five-year survival rates in Nigeria, for example, are 80% for cancer confined to the breast, 46% for cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes, and 10% for cancer that has metastasized to more distant parts of the body; comparable figures for white women in the United States which are 97%, 76%, and 20%, respectively 9 .Therefore, one key strategy for reducing breast cancer mortality is increasing the proportion of cases that are detected early. This .approach is called down staging 2. Unfortunately, women in low-resource countries i.e. under developed countries generally present at a later stage of disease than women elsewhere9. One factor that contributes to later detection is women’s delay in having breast lumps evaluated. Some may not realize how serious their condition is or that cancer treatments are available, while others may believe their symptoms are best treated with local remedies. In many countries, the social stigma associated with breast cancer and the potential disfigurement of mastectomy pose obstacles to care. Educating women about breast cancer may encourage them to seek medical care promptly. The absence of mass screening programs in many countries also contributes to the problem. Regular screening of all women over a certain age has the potential to reveal more of breast cancer cases diagnosed in the earliest stages. However, these categories of people both men and women should be knowledgeable enough on the risk of breast Cancer.
COMPLIANCE WITH MAMMOGRAPHY SCREENING OF BREAST CANCER IN ISUOCHI AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
Chapter one Introduction 1.1 Background to the Study Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and first cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide with a world number of new cases estimated at 1,384,155 in 2008. Its worldwide prevalence is still on the rise[2, 3] and nowadays breast cancer is considered to be an increasing public health... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT This research was carried out to characterize the variety of the breast lesion seen during mammography at UNTH and to establish the age distribution of the lesion at the time of presentation. This research is non descriptive study,222 secondary data was obtained from the patient request card and patient mammography result. This result... Continue Reading
INTRODUCTION 1.0 Background of the study This chapter describes the Background of the study, the statement of the problem, objectives of the study, Research Questions, significance of the study, scope/delimitation of the study and Operational definitions of terms. The development of the human breast begins during gestation but is not complete at... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT The data for this research work titled statistical analysis of reported cases of Breast cancer was collected from the National Hospital Abuja. The statistical tool used for the analysis of the data is Time Series. The time series model gave a slope of -1.2 which indicates that new cases of the disease is gradually decreasing. TABLE OF... Continue Reading
CHAPTER ONE 1.1 INTRODUCTION Over the year the leading cause of death in women aged between 35-54 years is breast cancer and second to cardiovascular disease in order women (Logan 1975). Mortality and incidence rate vary throughout the... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT Cancer of the cervix remains the most common malignant neoplasm of the female genitalia and the second most common cancer in women.. Cervical Cancers screening serves to detect the possibility that a cancer is present. The main objective of the study was to determine the knowledge and acceptability of Cervicals Cancer Screening among... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT Teacher motivation naturally has to do teacher’s desire in participation in the education process. Motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing that goes in influencing individual’s behaviours and performance at work. The study addressed the motivational needs of teacher’s the factors responsible for lack of motivational of the... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT This study focused on the challenges facing the public primary school teachers in teaching career in Ovia North LGA. Specifically the study aimed at investigating the causes of the challenges that face the primary school teachers in their teaching career. The specific challenges that face the teachers in their teaching career and how do... Continue Reading