This project shows the construction of a microcontroller based security door using Smart card. It is aimed towards programming the microcontroller to control the Hardware in sliding door. The system consists of a microcontroller 89S52 which Sends a signal to the multiplexers on insertion of the smart card in the card slot. The multiplexers consist of ICS which prompts for a display of the identity of the Card user in the liquid crystal display (LCD). The LCD displays the status of the Card. On validation of the card, the LCD displays a welcome note to the user and Prompts for a pin code. The pin code is being keyed in from the key pad. If Confirmed by the program written into the microcontroller access will be granted, otherwise no access, giving the user two more chances to insert the correct smartcard or pin code to it, before final denial of access and alarm. When access is granted, the card sends a 5volt signal to the microcontroller which triggers relay, resulting in the opening of the door.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - i
Approval Page - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - vi
List of Tables- - - - - - - xi
List of Figures - - - - - - xii
Glossary of Symbols / Abbreviations - - xiii
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - 1
1.1 History of smart system - - - - 2
1.1 Areas of application - - - - 4
1.2 Aims of the project - - - - -4
1.5 Objectives of the project - - - 5
1.3 Project Scope - - - - - 5
2.0 Literature review - - - - - 6
2.1 Mechanism of Security of access system - - 7
2.1.2 Types of security access system - - - 8
2.1.3 Sound activated lock system - - 8
2.1.4 Shadow detector access system - - - 8
2.1.5 Pressure and pad sensitive security system - 9
2.1.6 Smartcard access system - - - 9
2.2 The components used - - - 12
2.2.1 The microcontroller - - - - 12
2.2.2 Elements of a microcontroller - - - 12
220.127.116.11 The CPU - - - - - - 13
18.104.22.168 Ram - - - - - - - 13
22.214.171.124 Eprom - - - - - - 14
126.96.36.199 Input / Output - - - - - 14
2.2.3 Rfid card - - - - - - - 14
2.2.4 Liquid crystal display - - - 16
2.2.6 Active components - - - - - 17
188.8.131.52 Transistor - - - - - - - 17
184.108.40.206 Diodes - - - - - - 18
2.3.0 Passive component - - - - - 19
2.3.1 Resistor - - - - - - 19
2.3.2 Capacitor - - - - - - 22
2.3.3 Transformer - - - - - - 23
3.0 Design analysis of the electric circuit and
Mechanical unit - - - - - 25
3.1 Hardware design - - - - - 25
3.3 Opening door unit - - - - - 28
3.4 Alarm signal unit - - - - - 31
3.5 Display unit - - - - - - 32
3.6.1 Powering the microcontroller - - - 37
3.6.2 Crystal oscillator unit - - - - 39
3.7 smartcard unit - - - - - 39
3.8 Power supply unit - - - - - 40
3.8.2 Rectification - - - - - 41
3.8.3 Filtering - - - - - - 43
3.9 Synchronous 12v DC motor - - - 44
3.10 mechanical unit - - - - - 45
3.10.1 Fabrication of component parts - - - 45
3.10.2 Mechanism casing - - - - - 46
3.10.3 Door post - - - - - - 46
3.10.4 The door - - - - - - 46
3.11 software development - - - - 47
3.11.1 text editor - - - - - - 47
3.11.4 Loader - - - - - - 48
3.11.5 Testing - - - - - - 48
3.11.6 Debugging - - - - - - 48
3.12 Development process - - - - 49
3.13 Program entry and editing - - 49
3.14 Assembly and linking - - - - 49
3.16 Circuit design diagram - - - - 51
4.0 Material selection, assembly process,
Cost analysis, test and result. - - - 52
4.1 Material selection - - - 52
4.2 Assembly process - - - 53
4.3 Cost analysis - - - - - 53
4.4 Test and Result - - - - 55
5.0 Discussion of results, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Discussion of results - - - 56
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - 56
5.3 Recommendation - - - - 57
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Resistor color coding - - - 21
Table 4.1: cost analysis - - - - - 54
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 2.1: The CPU of a microcontroller - - 13
Fig 2.2: Diagram of a Rfid card - - - - 15
Fig 2.3: Diagram of the microcontroller
Fig 2.5: Diagram of Resistor color coding - - 20
Fig 2.6: Diagram of a Transformer - - - 23
Fig 3.1: Block diagram of the project - - - 2
Fig 3.3: Diagram of Relay Connection to the door -
Fig 3.5: Diagram of the alarm signal unit - - 31
Fig 3.6: Diagram of the microcontroller - - 36
Fig 3.7: Powering the microcontroller - - 38
Fig 3.9: The smart card unit - - - - 39
Fig 3.10: Diagram of the power supply - - 40
GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS / ABBREVIATIONS
1.1. SMART CARD SECURITY SYSTEM
Authentication is one of the security principle of an information system, this is to prevent unauthorized users from accessing the service of a institution.
Among the simplest aid, most frequent authentication method are password-based authentication based on smart cards.
Smart card are identify carrier that fully contribute to securing access by enabling strong two factor authentication.
Smart card system must define who can access and what service, each user will have a small card for exclusive use, the electronic signature mechanism enable authentication, interigrily and repudiation, the digital signature includes an electronic items.
Smart card is use to secure the authentification and simultaneous access of different users with different levels of classification, the proposed solution associated with smart card.
Creation of secured access path to offices, homes, hotels, industries etc. has been a Successful discovery of man. As a result of this, it has been possible to create door/gates that are well secured using smart card.
Individuals are becoming more aware of the dangers/ risk associated with relying on keys or padlocks to provide security to unauthorized areas of their apartments. Fraudsters/criminals can forge keys or make master keys that will be used to break into such rooms or offices. To eliminate this insecure and old fashioned method,
the use of password in doors/gates mechanism evolved. The development of single secret authentication such as password is an effective security control.
A long pass-word of more than ten characters that consists of random letters, numbers and special character can be very difficult to crack. Unfortunately, users cannot always remember the sort of pass-word, partly due to fundamental human limitations.
However, most security guidance recommends at least eight character random password. Because most users cannot commit eight character random password to memory and many attempt to write it down on a piece of paper which can be misplaced or seen by another person.
Remember passwords such as _123‘or other easily guessed characters Due to this.
1.2. HISTORY OF SMARTCARDS
Smart cards have evolved into highly sophisticated and electronic device that have multiple functions and are used in various areas of life. The first card was highly advanced but very expensive to manufacture. The miniaturization of electronic components in 1978 made it possible to mass-produce smartcard, it can be found
on every continent throughout the world.
The dates below show the historical milestone in the development of smartcard Technology;
In 1970 Dr. Karnataka Arimura of Japan fields the first and only patent on the smart card concept. In 1974 Roland Moreno of France fields the original patent for the IC card product.
In 1977 three commercial manufacturers, Bill CP 81, SGS Thomson, and Schlum Berger began development of the IC card product.
In 1979 Motorola developed the first secure single chip microcontroller for use in France banking.
In 1984 field trials of ATM bank card with chips were successfully conducted. In 1986 march to be precise, 14, 000 cards equipped with the Bill CP8 were distributed to clients of Bank of Virginia and the Marysand National Bank. Also 50000 casino cards were distributed to clients to the National Palm Beach Bank and the Mill Bank.
In 1991 first electronic benefits transfer smartcard project launched for the special supplement nutrition program for women, infants and children (WIC).
In 1994 Euro play, MasterCard and visa (EMV) published joint specification for global microchip-based bankcards (smart card). Germany began issuance of 80 million serial memory chip cards as citizen health cards.
In 1995 over 3 million digital mobile phone subscribers worldwide began initiating and building calls with smart cards. First of 40000 multi-functional, multi-
technology MARC card with chips where 1.5mil1ion VISA cash card valve chips were issued at the Atlanta Olympics.
Smartcard are continuously introduced into different areas of life around the globe. According to Walters, 1992 smart card is a standard-sized plastic card that contains an integrated circuit of chips which give that card the ability to store and or process data. The smart card is characterized by its chip, with its ability to store much more data than is held on a magnetic stripe, all within an extremely secure environment, Smartcard can be used for a wide variety of general purpose, e.g. authentication, data storage and data processing. There are many specific applications of the generic functions with
particular industry sector such as security access control.
1.3. AREAS OF APPLICATION
This project is applicable in areas where unauthorized personnel are restricted from access as can be seen in Office Hotels
Residential quarters Banks Security System Credit or ATM cards
Authorization card for pay television Sims for mobile phones
1.4. AIMS OF THE PROJECT.
The major aim of this project is to construct a system that uses two-factor
authentication (smart card and their associated pins) to provide security control to reduce the threat of authorized access to some restricted areas. It also aims at bridging the technological gap between developing and developed countries of the world.
1.5. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT.
To harness the environment friendly resources and to enhanced their contribution to socio-economic.
To provide decentralized securities to economic.
To support effort for developing, demonstrating and commercializing and emerging technologies in the security sector and emerging technologies in the security sector and to this end help establish linkage with national and international institution for active collaboration.
1.6. LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT.
1. It can be expensive to install.
2. It is programmed to be read flexible and easily by a wide range device.
3. It can support a wide variety of function and high capacity to store information on the card.
4. It is very interesting processing power to protect the information, encrypt and execute instruction from specific programs.
1.7. ECONOMIC IMPROTANCE OF THE PROJECT.
1. It helps in smarter ways to record attendance and punctuality.
2. It is extremely available to have greater control over access.
3. It is safer for logical access, ensuring that when someone logs onto the IT system.
4. It helps to ease of cashless vending.
5. It promoted convenient resources management.
1.8. PROJECT SCOPE
The construction of security door using smart card is based on discrete components like resistors, transformers, Liquid crystal display, transistors, relays,
microcontroller, D.C motor, diodes, bridge rectifier, bolt and nuts, aluminum,wood etc.
This project design can be mounted on hotels door, office door etc with the incorporation of big dc motor and thyristor that will be able to drive specially constructed sliding gate/door when activated.