This project “production of plane mirror using local raw material” is meant to study the possibility of producing plane mirror using sand rich in silica as its major local raw material.
Plane mirror is produced by casting one side of a sheet glass. Presently in Nigeria, sheet glass is not used easily produce and as such, the local raw material used in the in the production of plane mirror in this product backing paint. The facilities for the production include spraying gun and finger brush.
In the course of production, the silver nitrate was first mixed with a reducing reagent; we formaldehyde of glucose, all in a distilled water. After which the mirror backing paint was mixed with some amount of thinner. The float glass was then washed with warm water and allowed to dry. After drying, it was first coated with silver nitrate solution after the use of talcum power to rub on the back of the glass.
A second spraying of mirror- backing paint was done after the silver nitrate coating had dried up. This whole operation now resulted to a plane-mirror since a plane mirror is also a coated glass.
The reflection of the mirror was taken after coating the glass, while the refractive index of the glass was taken before coating the float glass to form a mirror.
According to the history of glass- mirror- Eye glasses- spectacles – contact lenses online”, the history of mirror dates back to the ancient time when mankind first saw reflections in a pound or river and considered it magic. At first polished stone or later glass was used in early man-made mirrors later glass was used in combination with metals like tin, mercury, and leads to create mirror. Today combing glass and metal is still design used in almost all modern mirrors. Mirrors are made by coating flat glass with silver, gold or mirror paints dates from Roman times and the inventor is unknown.
According to steve Robinson (htlp:11 www. Restoration-advice org/pages/mirrors-history html), mirror made of brass are mentioned is the bible, and mirrors of bronze were is common use among the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. Polished silver was also used by the Greeks and Romans to produce reflection. Crude form of glass mirrors were first made is Venice in 1300. By the end of 17th century mirrors were made is Britain and the manufacture of mirrors developed in the other European countries and in U.SA.
The first attempt to back glass with a solution of silver was made by the German chemist Justus von liebiy in 1836, various methods have been developed since then, that depend on the chemical reduction of a silver salt to metallic silver.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Letter of transmittal
Table of content
1.1 Historical Background
1.4 Scope of Study:
1.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Plane Mirror
2.2 Raw Material for Production of Plane Mirror
2.2.2 Soda Ash (Sodium Trioxocarbonate Iv)
2.2.3 Limestone (Calcium Trioxocarbonate (W)
2.3.0 Other Raw Material (Ie Additives)
2.3.1 Colouring and Decolourizing Agents
2.3.2 Melting and Refining Agents
2.3.3 Opalizing Agents
2.40 Types of Furnaces
2.4.1 Tank Furnance
2.4.2 Pot Furances
2.4.3 Day Tanks
2.4.3 Recuperative Furnance
2.5.0 Glass Formation
2.5.1 Glass Melting Process
2.5 Preparation of the Batch
2.5.1 Melting Of Glass
2.6 Types of Glasses
2.6.2 Float Glass
2.7 Manufacture of Mirror
2.7.1 Sequence of Production
2.7.4 Washing Operation
2.7.5 Silvering Spraying
2.7.8 Cleaning and Inspection
2.8.0 Types of Mirrors
2.9.0 Optical Properties of Mirror
2.9.1 Refractive Index and Dispersion
3.0 Experiment Procedure for Production Of plane mirror
3.1 Raw Materials
3.3 Preparation of mirror silvering chemical
3.4 Operational procedures involved in the production of plane mirror
3.5 Experimental Result
3.5.1 Refractive Index Of Glass
3.5.2 Reflection of Plane Mirror
3.61 Experimental Date For Refractive Index
3.61.1 Experimental Data For Reflection
3.5.2 Reflection of Plane Mirror