+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
info@grossarchive.com

ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF Emericella nidulans AGAINST SELECTED PATHOGENS

  • Type:Project
  • Pages:75
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Microbiology Project Topics & Materials)

ABSTRACT Endophytic microorganisms have proven to be potential sources of antimicrobials against recalcitrant pathogens. Extracts of an endophytic fungus, Emericella nidulans  exhibited antibacterial  activity  against  selected  pathogens.  Emericella  nidulans  was  cultivated  in broth and fermented at 28 ± 2°C for 7days and 21 days to obtain bioactive components. Solvents extraction of bioactive compounds from Emericella nidulans in the order of their polarity – n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol – revealed significant susceptibilities of the test organisms to the extracts viz: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar typhimurium ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, and Enterococcus  faecalis  ATCC  51299  using  the  agar  well  diffusion  method.  Standard antibiotics were used as positive control while dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as negative control. The n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the growth of the test organisms  at  8.03  ±  0.35mm  –  28.00  ±  0.56mm  and  9.77  ±  0.66  –  24.50  ±  0.60  with minimum  inhibitory  concentration  of  16mg/ml  –  256mg/ml  and  32mg/ml  –  256mg/ml respectively. n-hexane extracts were bactericidal to the test organisms except Escherichia coli  ATCC  35218;  while  ethyl  acetate  was  bactericidal  against  Staphylococcus  aureus ATCC 6538 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 only. However in this study, ethanolic extracts had no activity against the test organisms. Thus, extracts of Emericella nidulans have purported activity against selected pathogens. 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Content                    Page 

Title page………………………………………………………………………………i Certification…………………………………………………………………………...ii Dedication…………………………………………………………………………….iii Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………iv 

Table of content………………………………………………………………………vi 

List of tables………………………………………………………………………….ix 

List of plates………………………………………………………………………….x Abstract………………………………………………………………………………xi 


CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

 1.1  Antimicrobial agents: Brief history and development……………….….……1 

1.2  Antimicrobial resistance…………………………………………….….……..2 

1.2.1  Causes of antimicrobial resistance………………………………….….……..3 

1.2.2  Mechanism of resistance………………………………………….….……….4

 1.3  Medical importance of test organisms…………………………….………….5

 1.3.1  Staphylococcus aureus………………………………………………….……………5 

1.3.2  Escherichia coli………………………………………………….……………6 

1.3.3  Salmonella enterica…………………………………………….……………..7

 1.3.4  Enterococcus faecalis………………………………………….……………...8 

1.4  Plants as antimicrobial agents……………………………….………………..9

 1.4.1  Ethno pharmacology……………………………………….………………..10 

1.4.2  Endophytes in plants……………………………………….………………..11 

1.4.2.1  Fungi…………………………………………………….……………….....13 

1.4.2.2  Bacteria………………………………………………….………………….14

 1.4.2.3  Actinomycetes………………………………………….…………………..14 

1.5  Moringa oleifera…………………………………………….……………………...15 

1.5.1  Morphology of Moringa oleifera………………………….……………………...15 

1.5.2  Etymology of Moringa oleifera……………………….…………………….16

 1.5.3  Geographical source of Moringa oleifera…………….……………………..16 

1.5.4  Taxonomic classification of Moringa oleifera……….………………………….16 

1.5.5  Chemical composition of Moringa oleifera………….…………………………..17 

1.5.6  Pharmacology……………………………………….……………………….17 

1.6  The endophyte Emericella nidulans……………….………………………...18 

1.6.1  Morphology of Emericella nidulans……………….………………………...18 

1.6.2  Habitat of Emericella nidulans……………………….…………………………….20 

1.6.3  Applications of Emericella nidulans………………..……………………………..20 

1.7   Endophytes of Moringa oleifera…………………………………………………..20 

1.8  Justification…………………………………………………………………..21 

1.9  Aim of the study……………………………………………………………..21 

1.10  Specific objectives…………………………………………………………...22 


CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS 

2.1  Sterilization of materials……………………………………………………..26 

2.2  Preparation of culture media.……………………………..…………………26 

2.3  Source of test organisms…...…………………………………………………27 

2.4  Maintenance of test organisms……………………………………………….27 

2.5  Source of the endophytic fungus Emericella nidulans.......………………….27

 2.6  Cultivation and Extraction…………………………………………………..27 

2.7  Reconstitution of extracts…………………………………………………...28 

2.8  Antimicrobial susceptibility tests…………………………………………...28 

2.8.1  Determination of antimicrobial activity of the extract……………………...28

 2.8.2  Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration………………………29 

2.8.3  Determination of minimum bactericidal concentration…………………….30

 2.8.4  Antimicrobial susceptibility test using standard antibiotics………………..30

 2.9  Statistical analysis…………………………………………………………..31


 CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS

 3.1  Antimicrobial susceptibility of test organisms to extracts…………………32 

3.2  Minimum inhibitory concentration………………………………………...32 

3.3  Minimum bactericidal concentration………………………………………32

 3.4  Susceptibility of test organisms to standard antibiotics……………………37 


CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION……………………………………………….39 Recommendations…………………………………………………………………..46 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………..47 References…………………………………………………………………………..48 

Appendix…………………………………………………………………….……...65  

ix 


 LIST OF TABLES 

Table          Title          

Page 1.  Antimicrobial susceptibilities to extracts of Emericella nidulans…... 33

 2.  Minimum inhibitory concentration…………………………………...35 

3.  Minimum bactericidal concentration…………………………………36

 4.  Susceptibility of test organisms to standard antibiotics………………38   

x  


LIST OF PLATES Table          Title          Page 1a.  Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. ……………………………………..23 1b.  Leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. ……………………………………24 1c.  Flowers of Moringa oleifera Lam. …………………………………..25   2.  Pure culture of Emericella nidulans……………………………Appendix I    

xi  

ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF Emericella nidulans AGAINST SELECTED PATHOGENS

Share This

Details

Type Project
Department Microbiology
Project ID MCB0235
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
No of Pages 75 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Microbiology
    Project ID MCB0235
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    No of Pages 75 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    ABSTRACT Oils extracted from the fruits of two Africa spices- Piper guineense and Xylopia aethiopica were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities using Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, Aspergillus sp, Bacillus cereus, Penicillum commune and Rhizopus stolonifer as test isolates. Well-in-agar, disc diffusion and dilution susceptibility testing... Continue Reading
    ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF SELECTED PLANTS (BITTERLEAF, UTAZI, AND BITTERKOLA LEAF)EXTRACT’S AGAINST FISH PATHOGENIC BACTERIA TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE 1.1 introduction 1.2 objectives the study references CHAPTER TWO 2.1 ethnobotanical 2.1.1 medicinal plants 2.2 bitterleaf 2.2.1 antibacterial properties of bitterleaf 2.3 utazi 2.3.1... Continue Reading
    ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF SELECTED PLANTS (BITTERLEAF, UTAZI, AND BITTERKOLA LEAF)EXTRACT’S AGAINST FISH PATHOGENIC BACTERIA TABLE OF CONTENT   CHAPTER ONE 1.1 introduction 1.2 objectives the study references CHAPTER TWO 2.1 ethnobotanical 2.1.1 medicinal plants 2.2 bitterleaf 2.2.1 antibacterial properties of bitterleaf 2.3 utazi 2.3.1... Continue Reading
    Abstract Ceiba pentandra is a tropical tree of order Malvales and the family Malvaceae. The basic objective of this research work is to determine the antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of Ceiba pentandra. Fresh leaves and bark of Ceiba petandra was collected at Akungba Akoko. Ceiba pentandra (leaf and bark) were prepared for extraction... Continue Reading
    Microbiological  tests  revealed  that  Hibiscus  sabdariffa  plant  extract  has  antibacterial properties  thus  verifying  folklore  medicine  in  the  treatment  of  abscesses,  bilious  conditions, cough,  dysuria  and  scurvy  (Morton,  1987;  Perry,  1980  Ross,  2003).  The  extraction  type  of aqueous ... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The susceptibilities of Salmonella typhi and other pathogens to antibiotics and hot aqueous extract of  Hibiscus sabdariffa  were investigated using agar diffusion and agar well diffusion methods respectively.  Salmonella typhi  was sensitive to ampicillin, cetriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin of ofloxacin and perfloxacin.... Continue Reading
    Abstract Objectives: The present study reported the antibiotic susceptibility profile and pattern of pathogens isolated from in- and out-patients with respiratory tracts infections. Methods: Sputum and throat swab samples were collected aseptically from subjects and cultured on the appropriate bacteriological media. Bacterial isolates were... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The creator did not leave human beings with the choice of determining their gender. Yet, women have sufered immensely in various aspects of life just because they are born females. This practice which has existed from time immemorial has been stemmed in the western World. However, most African Countries, which includes Nigeria, still... Continue Reading
    TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter One            Introduction 1.1         Background of the study 1.2         Statement of the problem 1.3         Purpose of the study 1.4         Significance of study 1.5         Research questions 1.6         Scope of study 1.7         Limitation of... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Geo-electrical survey using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) was carried out in the Sports Complex of Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun Delta State (FUPRE) in order to determine the groundwater potential of the area and the aquifer distribution. The Schlumberger electrode configuration was used with a maximum current... Continue Reading