THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF FALLING STANDARD OF EDUCATION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN GWAGWALADA AREA COUNCIL
The pride of educational system depends not just on the quantity but more importantly, on the quality of its products at all levels. The quality of the products in turn depends largely on the quality of the education that students receive in Secondary Schools and which is also dependent upon the standard of control that teachers and students enjoy. It has been observed that,the problem of inadequate and ineffective quality control has been responsible for producing students who remain half-baked and cannot assist the society in which they find themselves. This study looks at the causes and effects of fallen standard of education among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council. The participants were one hundred (100) respondents. The resultscshow that the standard of education has fallen to a great drastic extent in Gwagwalade Area Council of FCT, lack of finance of education sector by government is responsible for the fallen standard of education and traditional values, in terms of poor or wrong orientations are responsible for the decline in standard. Based on the finding it was recommended that government should increase the allocation of subventions to the educational sectors. Also, the community should assist in the financing of schools in their environs because it will help to a great extent the employment and the payment of well-qualified teachers who are catalyst of educational excellence. To properly address the fallen standard of education, students in secondary schools should learn to imbibe the habit of reading and being punctual to school as well as abiding by the regulatory standard of the schools, this is because findings from the in-depth interview reveals that students come to school at will and leave at will. This will help to greater measure in the reduction of the fallen standard of education among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background Of The Study
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Objective Of The Study
1.6 Significance Of The Study
1.7 Scope Of The Study
1.8.0 Abbreviations And Definition Of Key Terms
1.8.2 Definition Of Key-Terms
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.2 The Extent of Fallen Standard of Education in Nigeria
2.3 Causes of Fallen Standard of Education in Nigeria
2.3.1 The Acute Shortage of Qualified Teachers
2.3.2 Poor Budgetary Allocation to Education Sector in Nigeria
2.3.3 Poor Monitoring System.
2.3.4 Other Causes of Fallen Standard of Education in Nigeria
2.4 The Effects of Fallen Standard of Education in Nigeria
2.5 Opinions on How to Raise the Fallen Standard of Education in Nigeria
2.6 Theoretical Framework
2.7 The Structural Functionalism Perspective
3.2 Location Of The Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sampling Techniques
3.5 Methods of Data Collection
3.6 Methods of Data Analysis
3.7 Problems Encountered In The Field
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4. 1 Introduction
4.2 Socio-Demographic Characteristics Of The Respondents
4.4.1 The Extent of Fallen Standard of Education in Nigeria
4.4.4Causes of Fallen Standard of Education in Nigeria
4.4.7The Effects of Fallen Standard of Education in Nigeria
4.4.10: Opinions on how to raise the fallen standard of education
4.6Testing Hypothesis Using Chi-Square Formula For Testing
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
APPENDIX I QUESTIONNAIRE
APPENDIX II IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW GUIDE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The pride of educational system depends not just on the quality but more importantly, on the quality of its products at all levels. The quality of the products in turn depends largely on the quality of the education that students receive in secondary schools and which is also dependent upon the standard of control that teachers and students enjoy. It has been observed that, the problem of inadequate and ineffective quality control has been responsible for producing students who remain half-baked and cannot assist the society in which they find themselves (Erinle & Abioye, 2003).
The frequent modifications in the system are necessitated by the intentions of Nigerians to create “a Nigerian” school system that will address the issue of fallen standard of education (Njoku, 2005). These changes include those in scope, standard, organization, curriculum and method. An example being; “The Universal Basic Education (U.B.E)” (Ayorinde, 1999).
According to Fadipe (1998), the quality of any educational system is related to its internal and external criteria in the performance of students in external examination such as WAEC, NECO, JAMB, etc. It has been recorded that between 2001 and 2009, the average success rate in JAMB examination was 10.42%. Also in 2005, 1.5 million students took the examination that there is a decline in the standard of investigate on the causes and effects of falling standard of education among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The Secondary School in Gwagwalada Area Council have a lot of poor infrastructures and inadequate facilities. Most of the students combine farming with academic work, owing to the fact that majority of the residents of Gwagwalada Area Council are farmers.
Oyaba, (1998) is of the opinion that there is a strong relationship between environment and children educational performance. He added that children whose parents are farmers, unskilled labourers or petty craftsmen often seriously experience academic failure.
Most of the secondary school leavers cannot further their education due to poor grades in their public examinations. Most of the boys venture into taking, selling of drugs and marijuana or at best, they become okada riders (Commercial Motor Cyclists) and eventually get married prior or immediately they finish their secondary school. Furthermore, the girls engage themselves in teenage sex business or what they call club girls. This is as a result of the proliferation of hotels in Gwagwalada Area Council.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This formed the premise on which the researcher intends to examine the following questions. Thus;
• To what extent is the standard of education fallen in Gwagwalada Area Council?
• What are the causes of the fallen standard of education in the area of study?
• What are the effect of fallen standard of education in the area of study?
• What are the opinion of people on how to raise the standard of education in the area of study?
1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The general objective of this study is to examine the causes and effects of fallen standard of education among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council. The specific research objectives are as follows:-
• The determine the extent to which the standard of education has fallen in the area of study.
• To determine the causes of the fallen standard of education in the area of study.
• To identify opinion on how to raise the standard of education in the area of study.
It is hypothesized that;
i. Parent’s occupation is more likely to affect student’s academic performance.
ii. Students involvement in farming and petty trading activities is more likely to be responsible for their poor academic performance.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The concern to investigate the fallen standard of education among secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council is so significant for the following reasons: Investigate and analyze the problems relating to fallen standard of education will enable the researcher to proffer possible solution to the problem. Also, the research will provide an in-depth understanding of the problem facing the educational sector. These findings would hopefully create more awareness and serve as a source of reference for government, researchers and of education.
1.7 THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research shall be carried out within the confines of Gwagwalada Area Council, and among secondary school leavers. Fallen standard of education will be looked at from the performance of secondary school students in public examinations, that is, in terms of grades or scores they obtained in external examination such as G.C.E, W.A.E.C, NECO and JAMB. For the purpose of this research, the fallen standard of education is defined in terms of grades and scores in public examinations namely; G.C.E, WAEC, NECO and JAMB.
A student is considered average if he/she earned a minimum of a credit in 5 subjects including English and Mathematics, above average if he/she earns a credit or higher in more than 5 subject including English and Mathematics, and below average he/she earns a credit or lower in less than 5 subjects all in G.C.E, WAEC or NECO. Similarly a candidate is considered average if he/she earn 200 scores in JAMB, above average if he/she earns above 200 and below average if he/she earns below 200 (Joel, 2005 in Baba, 2008).
Fallen standard of education or otherwise for the purpose of this research is defined by the number of students in school’s who are average or below average as the case may be. Thus, the standard of education is said to fall in any school of a larger proportion of its students perform below average in public examinations.
1.8 ABRIVIATIONS AND DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
UBE ( Universal Basic Education)
GCE (General Certificate Examination)
WAEC (West African Examination Council)
NECO ( National Examination Council)
JAMB (Joint Admission and Matriculation Board)
UPE (Universal Primary Education)
NCI (Nigerian Corruption Index)
LEA (Local Education Authority)
NCCE (National Commission for Colleges of Education
TRC (Teachers Registration Council)
NTI (National Teachers Institute)
FME (Federal Ministry of Education)
ORASS (Operation Reach All Secondary Schools)
READ (Read to be Educated Advanced and Develop)
TAP (Tracking Assets for Progress)
L.G.A ( Local Government Area)
IDI (In-depth Interview)
UNICEF ( United Nations International Children Fund)
1.8.2 DEFINITION OF KEY-TERMS
Education: this refers to an essential part of the society process employed to train its members to be functional and adopt the outlined behavioral patterns by the same society. In the interactive process involved, the society. In the interactive process involved, the society breeds the kind of members it requires for a particular stage of civilization (Virginia, M. Ajuzie, 2005). Education can also be defined as the deliberate systematic transmission of knowledge and acquisition of skills and sensitivities of culture by members of a particular society (Cremin, 1977).
Fallen Standard of Education: this refers to the decline or reduction in the quality of education in any society when compared with the former status.
Theory: a theory refers to a set of well-conceived and related scientific ideas put forward to explain and predict a given social phenomena. It can also be defined as an organized set propositions about the relationships between phenomena, based on upon long systematic observation or experimentation (Maliki, 2004).
Functional: this refers to an aspect of a particular thing that is set to be practical and or useful as well as having and working based on its special purpose (Kalat, 2011).
THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF FALLING STANDARD OF EDUCATION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN GWAGWALADA AREA COUNCIL.