+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
info@grossarchive.com

Effect of flooding on the livelihoods of people in Urban Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

  • Type:Project
  • Pages:103
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Geography Project Topics & Materials)
Abstract
The aim of the study is to assess the effects of flood on the livelihoods of communities in Urban Zaria Nigeria. Field survey research was carried out in the five purposively selected residential communities (Hanwa, Magume, Tudun-jukun, Muchia and Gyallesu) that are representative samples of the study area. Data was collected by administering the flood and livelihood questionnaire (FLQ). The study identified areas affected by flooding, determined factors responsible for flooding, its effect on livelihood and identified measures to control flood occurrences in the area. Data was analysed descriptively and inferentially using linear regression analysis. In assessing the periodicity of floods, about 78% of respondents affirmed that flooding is a yearly occurrence. More so, 74.5% observed that flooding around the area coincided with the rainy season in Zaria within May to August. Investigating the factors of flooding shows about 36% of respondents affirmed that blocking of the drainage systems caused by the dumping of wastes and heavy rainfall are the most likely causes of flooding in the area. The study reveals that the impact of floods could be seen across all the sources of livelihood in the area with farming considered as the major livelihood source declining sharply to about 40% due to instances of crop destruction and failure. Further assessment shows that flooding caused extensive damage on infrastructures like roads, schools and houses in the communities impacting negatively on the delivery of services such as health, agriculture and education in the area. In combating flooding occurrences in the area, 74.6% argued that government is doing little or nothing to salvage the situation. However, about 60% of the respondents stressed that public enlightenment programmes, channelization of drainage systems, government aid and policies, and community effort among others will help to reduce the impact of flooding. The result of the statistics revealed the proportion of variation; r2 = 0.055 has an overall effect of only 5.5% suggesting that 94.5% of association within the model cannot be established. The combined effect indicates no significant relationship exists between flooding occurrences and livelihood sources in the area. It is recommended, among other things, that there should be enforcement of law against indiscriminate dumping of refuse in the drainage system; efforts should be made by the government in the expansion and construction of new drainage channels to convey heavy rainstorms and high stream flow and mass sensitisation and advocacy programmes to create awareness in the vulnerable communities. 


TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    i
Declaration ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    ii
Certification -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------    iii
Acknowledgement ----------------------------------------------------------------------------   iv
Dedication -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    v
Table of Content ------------------------------------------------------------------------------   vii
List of tables -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------   viii
List of Figures and plates --------------------------------------------------------------------    ix
List of Appendices ----------------------------------------------------------------------------    x
Abbreviation, Definition, Glossary and Symbol ------------------------------------------   xi
Abstract -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   xii
Chapter One: Introduction and Background of the Study --------------------------   1
1.1 Introduction and Background of the Study ----------------------------------------   1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem ------------------------------------------------    6
1.3 Aim and Objectives -------------------------------------------------------------------   10
1.4 Null Hypotheses -----------------------------------------------------------------------   10
1.5 Scope of the Study- -------------------------------------------------------------------    10
1.6 Justification of the Study -------------------------------------------------------------    11
Chapter Two: Conceptual Consideration and Literature Review ------------------    12
2.1 Introduction -----------------------------------------------------------------------------   12
2.2.1 Conceptual Framework----------------------------------------------------------------    12
2.2.2    Concept of Flooding --------------------------------------------------------------------  14
2.2.3 Characteristics of Floods ---------------------------------------------------------------  16
2.2.4 Causes of Flooding ------------------------------------------------------------------   17
2.2.5    Flood Vulnerability ---------------------------------------------------------------------   23
2.2.6    Flood prediction   ------------------------------------------------------------------------  24
2.2.7    Flood Occurrence -----------------------------------------------------------------------   25
2.2.8    Benefits of Flood  ----------------------------------------------------------------------    27
2.2.9    Flood Control and Management -------------------------------------------------------  28
2.3      Urbanisation and Flood -----------------------------------------------------------------   30
2.3.1   Livelihood and Flood Occurrence in Urban Areas ----------------------------------   31
2.4      Review of Similar Studies -------------------------------------------------------------- 33
Chapter Three:  Study Area and Methodology ------------------------------------------  38
3.1 Introduction -----------------------------------------------------------------------------  38
3.2 Study Area ------------------------------------------------------------------------------   38
3.2.1 Location ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------   38
3.2.2 Climate ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------     40
3.2.3    Vegetation -----------------------------------------------------------------------------     40
3.2.4    Soils -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------       41
3.2.5    Geology --------------------------------------------------------------------------------     41

3.2.7    Population and Economy-------------------------------------------------------------    42
3.2.6    Land Use -------------------------------------------------------------------------------    43
3.3 Methodology---------------------------------------------------------------------------    44
3.3.1 Reconnaissance Survey --------------------------------------------------------------    44
3.3.2    Research Design ----------------------------------------------------------------------     44
3.3.3 Types of data --------------------------------------------------------------------------     44
3.3.4    Sources of Data -----------------------------------------------------------------------     45 
3.4 Sampling Technique and Sampling Size ------------------------------------------     45
3.4.1 Questionnaire Administration ------------------------------------------------------     46
3.5       Procedure for data collection -------------------------------------------------------     47
3.6 Method of Data Analysis ------------------------------------------------------------    47
Chapter Four: Result and Discussion ----------------------------------------------------    49
4.1 Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------     49
4.2 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents -------------------------------     49
4.3       Flood Experiences --------------------------------------------------------------------    52
4.3.1    Duration of Flood Occurrences -----------------------------------------------------    52
4.4       Areas Affected by Flood -------------------------------------------------------------   53
4.5       Factors Responsible for Flooding in the Study Area -----------------------------   57
4.6 Livelihood Pattern of the Households ----------------------------------------------   60
4.6.1    Effect of Flooding on the Livelihood Patterns of the Household -------------      61
4.6.0    Effect of Flooding on other Important Sectors in the Area --------------------      62
4.6.1    Effects of Flood on Crop Farming ------------------------------------------------       62  
4.6.2    Effects on Housing ------------------------------------------------------------------       65            
4.6.3    Effect on infrastructures ------------------------------------------------------------       66
4.6.6    Effects on Health --------------------------------------------------------------------       68
4.7       Flood Control Measures ------------------------------------------------------------       69
4.8.0    Extent of Government Participation in Controlling Flooding Occurrences---      71  
4.9.0    Test of Hypothesis ------------------------------------------------------------------        71
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation ----------------------        73
5.2 Summary ------------------------------------------------------------------------------        73
5.3 Conclusion ----------------------------------------------------------------------------        75
5.4 Recommendation ---------------------------------------------------------------------       77
            References -----------------------------------------------------------------------------       78                                                                                                          
            Appendices-----------------------------------------------------------------------------       86                                                                                                                 












List of Tables
Tables
3.1      Population of the Selected Communities ------------------------------------------- 46
3.2      Proportion of Respondent in the Selected Wards --------------------------------- 47
4.1      Demographic Characteristics of the respondents --------------------------------- 50
4.2      Flood Experiences -------------------------------------------------------------------- 51
4.3      Frequency of Flood Months --------------------------------------------------------- 53             
            4.4      Loss of the Main Staple Crop Grown ---------------------------------------------- 63 
4.5      Effects of Flood on Housing --------------------------------------------------------  65
4.6      Effect on infrastructures--------------------------------------------------------------  67
4.7      Effects of flood on Health------------------------------------------------------------  68
4.8      Government Intervention in Addressing Urban flooding------------------------- 71
4.9      Summary of Linear Regression Statistics ------------------------------------------ 73








             List of Figures and Plate
Figure 3.1 Map of the study Area (Urban Zaria) -----------------------------------------  39                                                      
Figure 4.1 Areas affected by flood ---------------------------------------------------------- 55
Figure 4.2 Factors Responsible for Flooding ---------------------------------------------- 58
Figure 4.3 Livelihood Patterns of the Communities -------------------------------------- 60
            Figure 4.4 Effect of Flood on Livelihood Before and After Flooding Occurrences     61
            Figure 4.5 Measures Employed in Mitigating Flooding in the Study area ------------- 70
            Plate 1: Bakatoshi Street Magume Community Zaria ------------------------------------  56
Plate 2: Blockage of Drainage with Solid Waste at Tudun-Jukun ----------------------  59
Plate 3: Effect of flood on Farming----------------------------------------------------------  63                                
            Plate 4: Effects of Flood on Housing -------------------------------------------------------- 66                                 
Plate 5: Effects of Flooding on Roads in the study area ---------------------------------- 68









List of Appendices 
Appendix I: Flood and Livelihood Questionnaire (FLQ) --------------------------------- 84                                 
Appendix II: Statistics of Regression Analysis --------------------------------------------- 87
          

















Abbreviation, Definition, Glossary and Symbols
            BNRCC          Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change 
WHO World Health Organisation
UNICEF United Nation Children Education Funds
  DFID               British Department for Development Studies  
   GIS                 Geographical Information System
 UN United Nation
 NEMA           National Emergency Management Agency
 NPC               National Population Commission
 Ung.                Unguwa (Town)  
 SPSS               Statistical Packages for Social Science
 SHELDUS      Spatial Hazard Event and Losses Database for United State
 FEMA             Federal Environmental Management Agency
 MDGs             Millennium Development Goals
             APFM             Associated Programme on Flood Management in 2006
 UHI                Urban Heat Island
 NOAA            National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  UN/ISDR       United Nation for International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
  UNEP             United Nation Environmental Programme
  UNFCCC       United National Framework Convention on Climate Change

Effect of flooding on the livelihoods of people in Urban Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Share This

Details

Type Project
Department Geography
Project ID GEO0060
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
No of Pages 103 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Geography
    Project ID GEO0060
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    No of Pages 103 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    Abstract The aim of the study is to assess the effects of flood on the livelihoods of communities in Urban Zaria Nigeria. Field survey research was carried out in the five purposively selected residential communities (Hanwa, Magume, Tudun-jukun, Muchia and Gyallesu) that are representative samples of the study area. Data was collected by... Continue Reading
    This project work capture the causes and effects of flooding in different parts of the nation. ABSTRACT: Nigeria is the most populous Black race country in Africa and in the world with a total land area of 983,213 km2 occupied by over 160 Million people: The interaction of these millions of people with their environment has left indelible mark on... Continue Reading
    The study was carried out in order to assess the effect of cultural practices on umbilical cord care in institute of child health Banzazzau. The purpose of the study was to identify the existing cultural practice of cord care, appropriate optimal method of cord care, to find out the relationship between orthodox and traditional method of cord... Continue Reading
    This research work titled ‘Financial Planning and Control in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State’ is aimed to make an in depth examination of the revenue and expenditure plan and the method of financial control in the existing local Government system in Nigeria and Zaria local government area in particular. Thus, one hundred and fifty... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT In Nigeria and particularly in Zaria city of Kaduna state, open dumping is still the most common household waste disposal method/practice. This type of practice is un hygienic and environmentally unfriendly. This research is aimed at effective household waste management practices in the study area. The research found that there are some... Continue Reading
    [A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA STATE LIBRARY BOARD, KADUNA] CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1            Background to the Study The Chambers Universal Learners Dictionary define a library as a building or room containing a collection of books or some other collection, for example,... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This research work covers the impact of the public library services to the people of Kaduna State. It examines the views of the users toward the services rendered by the library, the type of services offered and also how satisfactory the users are with the services. The survey design was adopted in this study and methods used collecting... Continue Reading
    Abstract Marriage and family is designed for the development of human race but unfortunately many families are enduring what they ought to enjoy. It is the oldest social obligation in human society and it is a socially sanctioned union, typically between two or more persons usually called husband and wife. The concept of marital instability is... Continue Reading
    This research work titled ‘Financial Planning and Control in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State’ is aimed to make an in depth examination of the revenue and expenditure plan and the method of financial control in the existing local Government system in Nigeria and Zaria local government area in particular. Thus, one hundred and fifty... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Throughout the world marriage is, regarded as a moment of celebration and a milestone in adult life. Sadly, as this study makes it clear, the practice of early marriage gives no such case for celebration. All too often, the imposition of marriage patter upon a child means that a girl or boy’s childhood is cut short and their fundamental... Continue Reading